Physico-geographical position: the area of the continent, its location relative to the equator, the zero meridian, the tropics and polar circles, seas and oceans, other continents; extreme points; the length of the continent from north to south and from west to east. History of discovery and exploration of the continent. The structure of the earth’s crust, relief and minerals: the relationship between tectonic structures, relief forms and regularities in the location of mineral deposits. Climate: the main factors affecting the formation of the climate of the continent; in what climatic zones and areas is the continent and the influence of the main types of climate on the development of nature and population. Waters of the land: rivers, lakes, marshes, groundwaters, glaciers, permafrost. Natural zones: regularities of their location on the mainland; characteristic of each natural zone as a natural complex according to plan: geographic location, basic relief forms, climate, internal waters, soils, vegetation, fauna, environmental problems and nature protection. Population: its total population; density and placement features; racial and national composition. Political map: the largest in terms of area, population and level of economic development of the mainland.
Man has significantly changed parts of the continents. Many species of plants disappeared due to deforestation, plowing of savannas and steppes. Destruction of the habitual environment of wild animals, hunting, poaching all this led to the disappearance of many of their species.
Before mankind there was an urgent problem of preservation of the nature of our planet – the environment of its dwelling. The solution of this problem is possible only if the general laws of the nature of the whole Earth and individual continents are comprehended.