The emergence of Scandinavian states in the Middle Ages

The basis of the economic and political life of Scandinavia in the days of the Vikings were free people Bond. They had their own farm, they used the right to carry arms and appeal to the courts. They were farmers, cattlemen, hunters and fishermen. All of them were considered equal, but often their rights depended on the antiquity of the clan and the amount of land or livestock that they owned. The land could not be sold or bought. She inherited from her father to her eldest son. Other sons were forced to take care of themselves, which led to aggressive campaigns. The free population of Scandinavia, including merchants, artisans, lived in separate farms or small villages.

Among the artisans, blacksmiths, carpenters and carpenters were particularly respected, because they created weapons and ships for the Normans. Invasive campaigns contributed to the growth of the power of the nobility, which concentrated in their hands the land, livestock, goods and slaves. Slaves were captured,

and also once free people, deprived of their rights because of debts or crimes.

All vital questions the population of Scandinavia decided at meetings – Tingah. They were collected 1-2 times a month and the usual owners-bonds came to them first of all.

In the era of the Vikings in Scandinavia, signs of state power are formed and three kingdoms are formed – Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The state of the Danes was established under King Harold Sinezub. At the beginning of the XI century. the association of Norway was basically completed. The final design of Sweden in a single state fell on the reign of King Olav Scottonung.

In the conquered Vikings of Iceland, the nobility managed to maintain its independence. It was among the tribal nobility that elders were elected – Godi, who at the same time were priests and judges. The supreme governing body in Iceland was the People’s Assembly – Althing. It adopted laws and court. Althing was conducted by the All-Elder, who was elected for three years.

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The emergence of Scandinavian states in the Middle Ages