Clothing, footwear and jewelry in medieval Europe

The clothing of people of the early Middle Ages was surprisingly monotonous. There were no big differences in the clothes of a nobleman and peasant, male and female clothes. It was based on short trousers and a linen shirt to the knees. Also put on another top shirt made of dense fabric, just below the waist. In men, the sleeves of the upper shirt were longer and wider than in women. Clothes were worn over the head, since there were no buttons at that time. Well-off people also wore a simple coat. Men threw him over his shoulder, and women covered their shoulders completely. At the end of the early Middle Ages a cloak appeared as a hood. Both men and women wore the same sharp-nosed boots, and did not distinguish left and right.

An important element of clothing in the era of the early Middle Ages was the belt, which, in addition to direct destination, also replaced pockets, because they were not there either. All the necessary people wore in knapsacks and purses, similar to a bag,

tied to the belt. If necessary, coins or letters were also sewn into the belt.

В XII в. манера одеваться меняется. Именно с этого времени появляются первые признаки моды как таковой. Женщины начали носить юбки, а мужчины – длинные чулки, которые крепились к поясу коротких штанов. Появились пуговицы, что повлияло на фасон одежды. Наблюдаются также отличия в одежде знати, горожан и крестьян, прежде всего цветом. Простонародье должно было носить черный, серый и коричневый, тогда как знать красный, зеленый, синий. Одежду знати и горожан украшали орнаментальной вышивкой, кружевом и даже драгоценными камнями. Наряды стали шить из хлопковых и шелковых

тканей профессиональные ремесленники. Домотканую одежду носили лишь крестьяне.

В XIII в. вместо верхних сорочек стали надевать приталенную шерстяную одежду, удачно подчеркивающую фигуру, особенно у женщин. Новым элементом одежды, в частности богатых женщин, была безрукавка с пуговицами, украшенная вышивкой и окаймленная мехом. Самостоятельной деталью одежды постепенно становится капюшон, который отделили от плаща. Так появились первые головные уборы – шапки, колпаки, шляпы. Среди горожан особенно популярными были береты. Зажиточные люди носили береты из дорогих тканей, украшенные мехом и драгоценными камнями.

Later, the Middle Ages can be called a fashion carnival, because never before the peoples of Western Europe have dressed so bizarrely and brightly. Among the nobility, there is a tendency to make the waist as thin as possible for women and men. Women tried to achieve their ideal with a dress of a special cut and lacing. Men also did not lag behind women. In the XIV century. men’s stockings turned into modern pants. In addition, almost every noble man begins to wear a narrow short Camisole, buttoned up with all the buttons. On top of the jacket and long, narrowed pants, there was still an outfit of an arbitrary cut with wide sleeves or slits in place of them. Such outerwear was sewn, as a rule, from velvet.

Peasants wore wooden shoes, occasionally leather without heels. Dirty city streets and streets were patched in wooden pads with high heels. From the XII century. The shoes began to pull. In the XIV century. in Burgundy appears a special kind of footwear noble men – the Bullets. Modes were introduced by knights to emphasize their non-involvement in physical labor. Then the shoes began to lengthen and rich burghers. Members of the royal family were allowed to wear bullets up to 70 cm long, noblemen up to 60 cm, knights up to 45 cm, townspeople up to 30 cm, and commoners – up to 15 cm. Long socks of such shoes were tied to the knees or even to the belt.

They wore mittens and gloves in the Middle Ages. First of all, they were needed by the peasants. But gradually the gloves became an element of luxury and acquired a symbolic meaning: it was considered indecent to enter them into the church, shaking hands with a friend, without removing gloves, was perceived as an insult. The presentation of the glove meant the recognition of vassalage. Throw it first to someone meant to show contempt and call an opponent to a duel. The Gauntlets were an indispensable attribute of falconry when the bird was held on the arm. They sewed gloves and mittens made of deer, calfskin and sheep skin.

Not only women but also men wore various ornaments: rings, bracelets, necklaces, chains, brooches, silk embroidered purses, gold and silver buttons, etc. To know a lot of attention paid to their body. For crazy money, they bought from traders from the east cosmetics, balms, aromatic oils, perfumes.

Clothing defined the place of a person in society. Hence the desire to express themselves in clothes, not sparing forces and means. Rich townspeople tried to keep up with the lords of luxury. The royal authority demanded that the burghers wear clothes from dark-colored fabrics, and their wives, under penalty of punishment, were not allowed to wear silk dresses, long trains and fur. But the decrees were not fulfilled – at all times women go to any sacrifice to be beautiful.

Bullets – men’s shoes with long curved up toes, sometimes decorated with figures of animals, bells and even small mirrors.

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Clothing, footwear and jewelry in medieval Europe