The unification of the Arabs and the beginning of the Muslim conquests

With the death of Muhammad, the question arose of his successor. Since, according to the teachings of Islam, there could be no other prophets after Muhammad, the new head of the Muslim community and the Arab state received the title of Khalif, which means “deputy prophet.” The first caliphs were elected from the companions and relatives of Muhammad. There were four elected rulers: Abu Bakr, Omar, Osman and Ali. They ruled one after another from 632 to 661.

Among them, the second caliph Omar left the most notable mark in the history of the Arabs. He united under his rule all of Arabia and fought outside the peninsula. The Arabs conquered a significant part of its western lands from Iran to the Transcaucasus, and Byzantium – Palestine, Syria, Libya, Egypt.

Having conquered Egypt, Caliph Omar ordered the destruction of the famous Alexandria Library. They say that he said: “Everything in the ancient books corresponds to the Koran, it is there, and what does not correspond is that Muslims do not need it.”

In order to restore order in the conquered Byzantine regions, Omar came to Palestine in a cloak of coarse cloth on an ordinary camel. To the worn-out saddle was and attached a wooden pot and a bag with several stale barley cakes and dried dates. The stern caliph ordered to stop playing the musical instruments with which the locals came to meet him. On Arab commanders who came to him, he looked sternly and with contempt: they were wearing expensive silk and brocaded clothes. “Think about what awaits you after death!” – Omar rebuked them and threw them on the luxurious clothes of the confused generals of a handful of aches.

The first caliphs united Arabia and laid the foundations of the Arab caliphate.

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The unification of the Arabs and the beginning of the Muslim conquests