Stages of development of farms in the European North

1. How has the significance of the European North changed in the Russian economy as it evolved? What is the reason for the reduction and strengthening of the role of the region in the economy of the state?

The European North has long been a supplier of furs, salt and fish. From the end of the XVII to the beginning of the XVIII century. Through Holmogory and Arkhangelsk, the main trade was conducted with Western Europe. After the founding of St. Petersburg and until the end of the XIX century. The European North has lost its commercial importance, only areas close to the new capital have developed. Since the 1880’s. with the participation of foreign capital, active logging and export of timber through the Northern Dvina, through the Archangel port. During the First and Second World Wars, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk played an important role in supplying Russia with weapons and ammunition. In the 1930s. new sawmills and pulp and paper mills are being built. Development and export

of apatites and nephelines begins. Since 1934 the Pechora coal basin has been developed.

The periods of the rise and fall of the economic importance of the European North are associated with changes in the political and geographic location of the region and the importance of various treasures of the territory at different historical times.

2. What features of the region determined its economic specialization? How does it differ from the specialization of the geographic areas you have already studied?

The economic specialization of the European North was determined by the coastal position and a specific combination of natural resources. Unlike the regions of Central Russia and the North-West, agriculture is underdeveloped here, and the transport network is much less frequent.

3. Compare the development of ferrous metallurgy in the European North and Central Russia. Identify the features of similarity and difference.

The ferrous metallurgy of Russia is characterized by a high degree of concentration. Most of the raw materials are mined in large quarries, and most of the metal is smelted

at large enterprises. As you remember, on the territory of Russia there are three metallurgical bases. They give 80% of all products.

Central Russia corresponds to the Central Metallurgical Base. The bulk of the ore is mined in the Belgorod and Kursk regions. Enriched ore is mainly sent outside the district, as well as local businesses in Lipetsk and Stary Oskol. Most of the pig iron and steel of the Central Metallurgical Base is produced in one of the largest and modern in Russia Novolipetsk Metallurgical Combine. In the European North, the only enterprise outside the three metallurgical bases is the Cherepovets Metallurgical Combine Severstal. The plant uses iron ore from Karelia, the Kola Peninsula and KMA and coking coal from Vorkuta.

In Central Russia, in contrast to the European North, there is a widespread development of iron and steel industry: factories in Moscow, Elektrostal, Orel, Vyksa, Kulebaki, Nizhny Novgorod, Omutninsk.

4. Why do you think the North, and in particular the Vologda region, gave Russia such a large number of pioneers and discoverers of Siberia and the Far East?

The North was settled and mastered by resourceful and mobile people. Several generations of life in harsh conditions developed specific habits among the northerners, prepared the most active of their representatives for the further development of the vast, almost deserted expanses. In all of Central Russia, the European North is most similar in nature to Siberia and the Far East.

5. The European North does not have a pronounced “regional capital”. Which cities could claim this role? What are the advantages and potentialities of each of these cities?

Of the six centers of the subjects of the Federation that are part of the Northern Economic Area, only Naryan-Mar could hardly claim the role of a “regional capital”. In this center of the Nenets Autonomous District, on the Pechora River there are an order of magnitude less inhabitants than the rest, one fish processing plant and a sawmill. The other centers have a population of the same order and a similar history. Arkhangelsk and Murmansk – port cities and as a capital would be similar to St. Petersburg. Petrozavodsk, Syktyvkar and Vologda are inside the district and have a developed industry and infrastructure, but Petrozavodsk and Syktyvkar are the centers of autonomous entities, and proclamation of one of them as the capital would look like infringement on the rights of another.

In recent years, many states proclaim the new capital is not at all the largest city, often it is in a very little-developed area, sometimes it is built anew. For example, the capital of the Republic of Cote d’Ivoire Yamoussoukro. In the 1960-1970’s. It was built as the capital of the Pakistani city of Islamabad, since 1983 it was home to 359 thousand people. Especially to fulfill the functions of the capital of the largest country in South America, the city of Brasilia was built.

But the new capital of Kazakhstan Astana is also a very small city was founded in 1830 as a fortress of Akmola.

The capital of the Republic of Ingushetia since 1999, the city of Magas is being erected on the site, where the ancient fortress of the fairy-tale heroes stood along the Vainakh traditions. The population of Magas is only 10 thousand people, and among the completed buildings until recently was the presidential palace and administrative district.

For the role of the capital of the European North, with such a world trend, the city of Veliky Ustyug, the birthplace of Father Frost on the river, could also claim. Sukhona. The city is famous since 1207. The highest flourishing reached in the 17th century, then the main architectural monuments were built: the Church of the Ascension, Michael the Archangel and the Trinity-Gledensky Monasteries, the Assumption Cathedral; there were famous for the whole world folk crafts – silvering, weaving, carving and painting on birch bark, chasing, etc.

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Stages of development of farms in the European North