The first educational institutions of the Middle Ages were monastery, parafial and cathedral schools. However, they usually taught only one teacher, or a master, as his contemporaries called it. He passed the entire course of study with every schoolboy.
In schools, students studied “seven free arts.” It was a system of objects, from two levels. The first, the initial level, was called Trivium. He provided for the assimilation of three subjects – Grammar, Rhetoric and Dialectics. In grammar classes, students studied Latin: the alphabet, definitions, rules, as well as fables, sayings, and the like. After that, read the works of Latin authors. Grammar was not an easy subject and was considered “the mother of all sciences.” Perhaps that’s why she was
The second level was called Quadrivium and provided for the study of four subjects: Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy and Music. In the classes on arithmetic, they taught to add and subtract. Multiplication and division were less involved, because the records were given in Roman numerals. At the lessons of geometry studied the concept of figures, as well as individual elements of geography. Astronomy studied the motion of celestial bodies. In music classes, I learned music notation, developed the ability to compose and sing church songs.
In the XII-XIII centuries. Western Europe experienced economic and cultural upsurge. The development of cities, the expansion of the worldview of Europeans, familiarity with the culture of the East have become incentives for improving education. The cathedral schools did not keep up with the rapid development of science. Education was concentrated in the largest cities, where secular schools were created. They gave knowledge on the basics of trade and craft. For a long time, schools were taught in Latin. Only in the XIV century. there were schools with a national language of teaching.