The play of G. Ibsen “Nora” sparked heated debates in the society, here and there a message was posted in the living rooms: “Please do not talk about the Doll House.” Actually, the new drama began with the words of the main heroine Ibsen, told her husband Helmer: “We have something to talk about with you.” Ibsen created a kind of genre of the play-discussion, where the main thing for the characters is not the achievement of life success, but the search for true evidence of truth in the dialogue. The play-discussion sparked discussions in life.
The fact is that even with today’s emancipation of the woman, Nora’s behavior – her departure from children – can not be considered a norm, and in the days of Ibsen it offended public morality.
Nora’s role is a great test for any actress. From the famous actresses Nora played the Italian Eleanor Duse and the Russian Vera Komissarzhevskaya. The first shortened the text
of the play, the second completely played on Ibsen.
It was assumed that in the work of art, and in drama, among other things, there is a logic of character development that determines the actions of the heroes, that is, nothing unexpected, according to this concept, in the life of the hero can not be. Nora is a loving mother, and, according to the logic of normal reasoning, a quarrel with her husband can not be the reason for her departure from children. How could this “bird”, “squirrel” decide on such an act and so persistently defend their point of view?
Ibsen did not follow the path of standard resolution of events. He was an innovator in the field of drama, so the psychological inadequacy of heroes became his symbol of the inadequacy of social relations. Ibsen created an analytical, not a psycho-everyday play, and it was new. Ibsen showed how a person despite all things, despite psychological certainty, ventures to be himself.
“I need to find out for myself who is right – the society or I,” Nora says to her husband. “I can no longer be satisfied
with what most people say and what they write in books. I myself need to think about all these things and try to understand them.”
Having created a new mood for the mood, Ibsen “did not unload” it from everyday details. So, the play begins with the Christmas tree, which Nora bought and brought home on the Holy evening. Christmas for Catholics and Protestants is the main holiday of the year, it is the embodiment of family comfort and warmth. In addition to the tree, the playwright gives many other household details. This is Nora’s Neapolitan costume, in which she will dance at a party with her neighbors, then in this same suit she will begin a decisive conversation with Helmer. This is the mailbox, where lies the denunciation letter from the moneylender, Rank’s business cards with the sign of their imminent death. Leaving Helmer, Nora wants to take with her only those things that she brought from her house, having married. She is “freed” from the things of the “doll house”, from everything that seems insincere to her, a stranger. In a variety of details Ibsen sought to show the “cluttering” of life in the house of Helmer. At the same time, these details of the subtext help the reader and the viewer to understand the essence of what happened.
In his speech at his celebration at the Union of Norwegian Women in 1898, the writer said: “I thank you for the toast, but I must reject the honor of consciously promoting the women’s movement.” I did not even understand its essence, and the cause for which women are fighting, to me it seems universal… “
The most bold in the times of Ibsen were the statements and actions of Nora at the end of the play, when Helmer, frightened by the fact that the wife can leave the family, reminds her of her duties to her husband and children. Nora objects: “I have other duties and the same saints.” Obligations to myself. ” Helmer resorts to the last argument: “First of all you are a woman and a mother.” This is the most important thing. ” Nora replies: “I do not believe in it, I think that first of all I am a person the same as you… or at least should take care of becoming a human being.”
Becoming the flag of feminism at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the play of Ibsen in a hundred years does not arouse interest where it was once met with stormy applause, that is, in Norway, in Russia and, obviously, in other countries. The question is natural: why? Did all the problems that had caused Nora to do as she did went away? Perhaps it is because Nora is considering a special case of the struggle for the liberation of the individual? However, the “Doll House” is a play in which the discrepancy between a seemingly prosperous life and its internal unhappiness is shown. Perhaps the problem of the liberation of man in the beginning of the 21st century, in the aspect in which it was posed in Ibsen’s play, seems far-fetched, they say, “the lady is furious with the fat,” in our difficult life not before.
There is another important issue in the play, apart from attention to the fate of the main character. According to FM Dostoevsky, the transformation of mankind into thoughtless and serene puppets, subject to puppeteers, is a terrible danger. In the scale of civilization, “playing with dolls” leads to the creation of totalitarian regimes and to the destruction of entire peoples. But these conclusions of course, Ibsen, can not be. For him, the family – this is society, its imprint. And you can not disagree with this.
The dramas of Ibsen, who bypassed all the theaters of the world, had a strong influence on the world drama. The artist’s interest in the psychic life of heroes and criticism of social reality becomes the laws of progressive drama at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.
It is a pity that today in the repertoire of our theaters there are almost no plays by G. Ibsen. Only occasionally one can hear Edward Grieg’s music for another work by Ibsen – the drama “Per Gynt”, which is connected with folk art, with the world of fairy tales. The charming image of Solveig, the profound philosophical meaning of the drama attracted the attention of all lovers of beauty to Per Gyunt.