Public speech is a special form of speech activity in conditions of direct communication, speech addressed to a certain audience, oratory.
Public speech is pronounced in order to inform listeners and to provide them with the desired impact (persuasion, suggestion, inspiration, a call to action, etc.). By its nature, it is a monologic speech, that is, designed for passive perception, not suggesting a reciprocal verbal reaction. V. Vinogradov, a prominent linguistic scholar, wrote: “Speech is a special form of a dramatic monologue adapted to the situation of a public or civil” action. “
In the opinion of specialists, for a modern monologue, lengthy segments of the text are typical, consisting of utterances that have an individual compositional structure and
However, there are no strict boundaries between the monologue and the dialogue. Almost in any monologue there are elements of “dialogization,” the desire to overcome the passivity of the perception of the addressee, the desire to involve him in active mental activity. This is especially characteristic of oratorical speech.
If we consider a public speech from a socio-psychological point of view, then it is not just a speaker’s monologue before the audience, but a complex process of communication with listeners, and the process is not one-sided, but two-way, that is dialogue. The interaction between the speaker and the audience is subjective-subjective. Both sides are subjects of joint activity, co-creation, and each fulfills its role in this complex process of public communication.
Oratory speech is characterized by a number of features that determine its essence:
The presence of “feedback” (reaction to the speaker’s words). In the process of speaking, the speaker has the opportunity to observe the behavior of the audience and, in response to her words, to catch her mood, attitude to the spoken words, and, according to individual cues and questions from the audience, determine what is currently
Oral form of communication. Public speech is a living, direct conversation with listeners. It realizes the oral form of the literary language. Oral speech, unlike writing, is addressed to the present interlocutor and in many respects depends on who and how it listens. It is perceived by ear, therefore it is important to build and organize a public performance in such a way that its content is immediately understood and easily assimilated by listeners. The scientists found that only 50% of the information received is reproduced in the perception of written speech. The same message, stated orally and perceived by ear, is reproduced up to 90%.
A complex relationship between the book’s speech and its oral incarnation. Oratory speech, as a rule, is carefully prepared. In the process of thinking, developing and writing the text of the speech, the speaker relies on book-written sources (scientific, popular science, journalistic, fiction, dictionaries, reference books, etc.), so the prepared text is essentially a book speech. But, going to the rostrum, the speaker should not just read the text of the speech from the manuscript, but pronounce it so that it is understood and accepted. And then there are elements of colloquial speech, the speaker begins to improvise taking into account the reaction of listeners. Speech becomes a spontaneous oral speech. And the more experienced the speaker, the better he can go from book-written forms to live, immediate oral speech. It should be borne in mind, however,
Thus, as the authors of the textbook “The Culture of Oral Speech” (M. 1999) write, “bookishness and conversationality are the dangers that constantly confront the speaker.” The speaker should constantly balance, choosing the optimal variant of speech.
Using different means of communication. Since public speech is an oral form of communication, it uses not only linguistic means, although language is the protagonist’s main weapon, and the speaker’s speech must be distinguished by high speech culture. An important role in the performance process is also played by paralinguistic, non-verbal means of communication (intonation, loudness of voice, timbre of speech, its pace, features of pronunciation of sounds, gestures, facial expressions, type of selectable posture, etc.).