What are proverbs and sayings
Proverbs are widely used in teaching preschool children to their native language. And although children at this age perceive the judgments expressed in the proverb in the direct sense, they can already grasp their generalizing nature, which develops their thinking, makes it possible to catch the polysemy of words. KD Ushinsky noted that proverbs are of great importance in the initial training of the native language.
According to VI Dal, the proverb is like a parable, and how every parable consists of two parts: a common judgment and instruction, interpretation. Preschoolers often require a hint, instruction, warning. For example, in the proverb “Seven times measure, cut once”, contains not only a teaching for a tailor, but expresses the general sense of doing any act only after carefully considering and predicting the consequences.
The adult, using proverbs in his speech, can arrange a conversation with the child about its
various meanings. For example, the proverb “Every fish is good, if you go for a ride” can express the luck and luck of a person in different spheres of activity.
The proverb, unlike the proverb, is not a complete judgment, it does not seem to finish speaking, so it forces the person to think out, reason, and draw analogies. VP Anikin gives an example of sayings that reflect the direct meaning of the word “stupid”: “Not all at home”, “There is not enough riveting”.
Folk sayings are widespread figurative expressions that accurately determine any natural or life phenomenon. Sayings are used in teaching preschool children to observe nature, when studying the national calendar: “In April the land is preet”, “In the winter cold everyone is young”, etc.
Proverbs and sayings often carry irony, a joke, which is lacking in pre-school children. Children gradually, by 5-6 years, begin to understand irony, its figurative meaning. The expression “When the cancer on the mountain whistles” reflects the humor of the speaker in relation
to future events, but it does not say directly that this task is impracticable, so no one is going to execute it.
Proverbs and sayings carry in themselves a value meaning, attitude to life, to traditions, to the social attitudes of society. On the basis of small folklore forms, diagnostics have been developed to determine the life values of a person. Children are offered pairs of proverbs that reflect both negative and positive attitudes toward the phenomenon. “Work is not a wolf, the forest will not run away” and “Without difficulty you will not catch fish from the pond.” You can choose pairs of such proverbs yourself.