Complex sentences with two or more subordinate clauses are of two main types:
1) all the subordinates join directly to the main one;
2) the first subordinate joins the main, the second – the first subordinate, and so on.
The appendages, which are attached directly to the main, can be homogeneous and parallel (heterogeneous).
Homogeneous clauses have the same meaning and, like homogeneous members, are pronounced in a tone of enumeration; between them there can be co-operative unions. The connection of homogeneous subordinate clauses with the main is called subordination, so the subordinate homogeneous ones are called subordinate.
If subordinate sentences are joined by writing unions, then the comma is placed before the latter by the same rules as for homogeneous members.
1) I saw the stars begin to fog and lose their radiance, as a light sigh swept across the earth coolness. With the main sentence, there are two homogeneous (subordinate)
sentences (explanatory), which are related by the intonation of the enumeration, there is a comma between them.
2) It was evident that Savelich was right before me and that I had vainly insulted him with reproach and suspicion. Under the main sentence there are two homogeneous (co-ordinated) sentences (explanatory), which are connected by a single union and before which a comma is not put.
3) Yegorushka saw how the sky gradually darkened and the darkness fell on the earth, as the stars were lighted one by one. Under the main proposal, there are three subordinate proposals (explanatory); in the second subordinate clause the union is omitted; The first and second subordinate proposals are connected by a single union and before which a comma is not put.
4) I love the forest near Moscow and when they cheerfully rustle in the summer breeze, and when they are snow-covered, they sleep peacefully under the cold light of the moon. Under the main sentence, there are two homogeneous (subordinate) subordinate (time); before each subordinate there is an alliance and; before the second union and put a comma.
There was that pre-hour hour when lines, lines, colors, distances were blurred; when still daylight is confused, inextricably clinging to the night.
Under the main sentence, there are two homogeneous subordinate clauses (determinative), which are very common and have commas inside themselves; between them is a semicolon.
At the main sentence there may be heterogeneous subordinate clauses, which have different meanings, for example: When our boat headed from the frigate to the shore, we saw that a lot of women and children had rushed from the village. At the main sentence there are two heterogeneous subordinate clauses (clause of time and subordinate explanatory), which are separated from the main comma. This is a complex sentence with parallel subordination. His scheme:
The second type of complex sentences with two or more subordinate clauses are those in which clauses form a chain: the first refers to the main sentence (the first degree clause), the second refers to the clan of the 1st degree (the second degree clause) and t etc. Such a connection of sentences is called successive submission, for example:
It was night when I went out of the house where I read my story in a circle of relatives.
The first-degree adjective is an explanatory; second-degree subordinate – subordinate place; the subordinate of the third degree is an adverbial goal.
With successive submission, one subordinate may be inside another; in this case, there may be two subordinate unions nearby, for example: The old man warned that if the weather does not improve, there is nothing to think about fishing. With the main sentence, there is an explanatory sentence, and with it – an adjectival conditional, located inside the first subordinate clause.
Scheme of this proposal:
If in a compound sentence there are conjunctions (which if, what, etc.), then a comma is placed between the unions (for example, see above). The comma is not put, if there is further the second part of the union – then or so, for example:
1) The old man warned that if the weather does not improve, then there is nothing to think about fishing. 2) Brother strictly told Alyosha that if he promised to bring the book, he must fulfill his promise.
Schemes of these proposals:
There are such complex sentences in which these types of sentences are combined, for example: In silence, one could clearly hear how a man groaned and how hard the crane crunched under the feet of a bear, who was kicked out of the forest by an unusual rumbling and crackling.
When constructing complex sentences, sometimes mistakes and errors are allowed. We indicate some of them:
1. Pridatochnoe definitive with a word that is not in place: it is too far from the word it defines, for example: Igrunado was finished because of the darkness that we got carried away. This sentence can be corrected as follows: The game, which we got carried away, had to be finished because of the darkness.
2. Incidentally, the clause and the involved turn are mixed: In the evening we were at a tourist base, which stood on the beach and occupied almost half a park.
This sentence can be corrected as follows: In the evening we were at a tourist base, which stood on the beach and occupied almost half of the park; or: In the evening we were at a tourist base, standing on the beach and occupying almost half a park.
3. A complex sentence with two or more subordinate clutter is excessively cluttered with identical allied words, for example: The village in which we spent the summer was on the river bank, which was famous for its abundance of fish. This proposal can be corrected in several ways: 1) The village where we spent the summer was on the river bank, which was famous for the abundance of fish. 2) The village where we spent the summer was on the river bank, famous for its abundance of fish.
In compound sentences with homogeneous clauses, unsuccessful compositional or subordinate unions and allied words are used, for example: When the battle was over, when the enemy detachment, losing people and horses, disappeared into a birch grove, the partisans found their scout. This sentence can be corrected as follows: When the battle was over and the enemy detachment, losing people and horses, disappeared into a birch grove, the partisans found their scout.