Births and genres of literature
Literature refers to works of human thought, fixed in a written word and having an integral meaning. Every literary work, depending on how the writer depicts reality in it, is attributed to one of three literary genera. epic, lyric or drama.
The epic (from the Greek “narrative”) is a generalized name of works in which the events external to the author are depicted.
Lyrics (from the Greek “performed under the lyre”) – the generalized name of works – as a rule, poetic, in which there is no plot, but reflects the thoughts, feelings, experiences of the author (lyric hero).
Drama (from Greek “action”) is a generalized name of works in which life is shown through conflicts and clashes of heroes. Dramatic works are intended not so much for reading as for staging. In drama, it is not the external action that is important, but the experience of the conflict situation. In the drama, the
epic (narrative) and lyrics are merged together.
Within each genre literature distinguish genres – historically formed types of works, characterized by certain structural and content tags (see the table of genres).
Tragedy (with the Greek “goat song”) – a dramatic work with an insurmountable conflict, which depicts a tense struggle of strong characters and passions, culminating in the death of the hero.
Comedy (with the Greek “cheerful song”) – a dramatic work with a funny, funny story, usually ridicules public or domestic vices.
Drama is a literary work in the form of a dialogue with a serious plot, depicting the person in her dramatic relations with society.
Vaudeville is an easy comedy with singing verses and dances.
Fars is a theatrical play of light, playful character with external comic effects, designed for a coarse taste.
Ode (with the Greek “song”) is a choral, solemn song, a work chanting, praising a significant event or a heroic person.
Hymn (with the Greek “praise”) – a solemn song for
poems of a program nature. Initially, the hymns were dedicated to the gods. Currently, the anthem is one of the national symbols of the state.
The epigram (with the Greek “inscription”) is a short satirical poem of mocking character that arose in the 3rd century BC. e.
Elegy is a genre of lyric poetry devoted to sad meditations or a lyric poem, imbued with sadness. Belinsky called elegies “a song of sad content.” The word “elegy” is translated as “reed flute” or “plaintive song”. Elegy originated in ancient Greece in the 7th century BC. e.
Message – a poetic letter, an appeal to a specific person, a request, a wish.
Sonnet (from Provence “Song”) – a poem of 14 lines, which has a certain system of rhyme and strict stylistic laws. Sonnet originated in Italy in the 13th century (the creator – the poet Jacopo da Lentini), in England appeared in the first half of the 16th century (G. Sarri), and in Russia – in the 18th century. The main types of sonnet are Italian (from 2 quatrains and 2 tercets) and English (from 3 quatrains and the final couplet).
Poem (with the Greek “I do, I create”) is a lyric-epic genre, a large verse work with a narrative or lyrical plot, usually on a historical or legendary theme.
The ballad is a lyric-epic genre, a plot song of dramatic content.
Epic – a major work of art, telling of significant historical events. In ancient times – a narrative poem of heroic content. In the literature of the 19th and 20th centuries, a novel-epic genre appears-it is a work in which the characters of the main characters develop in the course of their participation in historical events.
The novel is a great narrative artwork with a complex plot, in the center of which is the fate of the individual.
The story is an artistic work that occupies the middle position between the novel and the story of the volume and complexity of the plot. In ancient times a narrative was called a narrative.
The story is an artwork of a small size, based on an episode, a case from a hero’s life.
A fairy tale is a work about fictional events and heroes, usually with the participation of magical, fantastic forces.
A fable is a narrative work in verse form, small in size, moralizing or satirical in nature.