Tynyanov Yuri Nikolayevich (1894 – 1943), the prose writer.
He was born on October 6 (18th century) in the town of Rezhitsa, Vitebsk province, in the family of a doctor, a great lover of literature. At the age of nine, the future writer goes to study at the Pskov gymnasium, after graduating from it in 1912 he entered the Slavic-Russian department of the History and Philology Faculty of St. Petersburg University. He was engaged in the Pushkin seminar with Wengerov, a well-known literary critic, who taught his student a lot and left him at the university. Later, Tynianov gave lectures on poetry at the Institute of Art History.
In 1918 – 21 he served in the Comintern first as a translator of the French department, then as head of the department.
Tynyanov’s first research, Gogol and Dostoevsky, was published in 1921. In addition to the history of literature, Tynyanov also dealt with theoretical issues, being a member of the scientific association OPOYAZ (Society for the Study of Poetic Language).
Scientific research and artistic prose merged already in his first novel “Kühl” (1925), the idea of writing which suggested K. Chukovsky, after hearing Tynyanov’s brilliant lecture on Kiichelbecker.
In 1927, Tynianov’s second historical novel, The Death of Wazir Mukhtar, was published, based on a deep study of Griboyedov’s life and work. M. Gorky wrote to the author from Sorrento: “… a good, interesting and satisfying” book. “It surprises your knowledge of the era…” Among the historical stories and stories, “Lieutenant Kizhe” (1928) stood out.
In the 1930s, a terrible, incurable disease (multiple sclerosis) began to develop, and although the writer twice went with Gorky’s treatment abroad (to Germany, France), the doctors could not help.
The disease did not deprive him of his spiritual vitality, energy, a keen interest in everything that happened in the country and literature.
The novel “Pushkin” (part 1 – 3, 1935 – 43) Tynyanov expected to finish the trilogy (Kiichelbecker, Griboedov, Pushkin). During the war, he wrote the third part of his latest novel, working until the last day. Y. Tynyanov died in Moscow on December 20, 1943.
A short biography from the book: Russian writers and poets. A short biographical dictionary. Moscow, 2000.