Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov is a great Russian writer, the author of the famous novels Oblomov and Obryv, a literary critic and publicist, as well as the owner of the civil rank “The Actual State Counselor.”
Early years. Education and Career
He was born on June 6, 1812 in Simbirsk, in a merchant family. At the age of seven Ivan lost his father. To bring up children to a single mother was helped by a godfather, a retired sailor, Nikolai Nikolayevich Tregubov. He actually replaced Goncharov’s father and gave him the first education. Next, the future writer was studying in a private boarding house near the house. Then at the age of ten at the insistence of his mother went to study in Moscow in a commercial college, where he spent eight years. His studies were difficult and uninteresting. In 1831, Goncharov entered the Moscow University at the Faculty of Literature, which three years later he successfully graduated.
After returning to his native
land, Goncharov served as the governor’s secretary. The service was boring and uninteresting, so it only lasted a year. Goncharov went to St. Petersburg, where he settled in the Ministry of Finance as an interpreter and worked until 1852.
An important fact of Goncharov’s biography – he was fond of reading from an early age. At the age of 15 he read many works by Karamzin, Pushkin, Derzhavin, Kheraskov, Ozerov and many others. From his childhood, he showed a talent for writing and interest in the humanities.
Goncharov published his first works – “Dashing Bitter” and “A Happy Bug”, taking a pseudonym, in the magazines “Snowdrop” and “Moon Nights.”
The flowering of his creative path coincided with an important stage in the development of Russian literature. In 1846 the writer gets acquainted with Belinsky’s circle, and already in 1847 the magazine Sovremennik publishes The Ordinary History, and in 1848 – the story Ivan Savich Podzhabrin, written by him six years ago.
For two and a half years
Goncharov was on a round-the-world trip, where he wrote a series of travel essays “Frigate Pallada.” Upon his return to St. Petersburg, he first published the first essays on the journey, and in 1858 a full book was published, which became a significant literary event of the 19th century.
His most important work, the famous novel Oblomov, is published in 1859. This novel brought the author fame and popularity. Goncharov begins to write a new work – the novel “The Cliff”.
Having replaced several jobs, in 1867 he retired.
Ivan Aleksandrovich resumed work on the novel “Cliff”, over which he worked for a long 20 years. The author sometimes felt that he did not have enough strength to finish it. However, in 1869 Goncharov completed the third part of the novel-trilogy, which also included “Ordinary story” and “Oblomov.” The work reflected the periods of Russia’s development – the era of serfdom, which gradually faded.
Last years of life
After the novel “Cliff” the writer often fell into depression, wrote a little, mostly sketches in the field of criticism. Goncharov was lonely, often sick. Once he caught a cold, he fell ill with pneumonia, which caused him to die on September 15, 1891, at the age of 79.