(1817 – 1885)
Kostomarov Nikolai Ivanovich (1817-1885). Born in an old noble family. He studied at Kharkov University. For several months he served in the dragoon regiment. He continued his studies at Moscow University. In the process of training I came to the conclusion that history is first of all the history of the people, not the state. The first thesis of the scientist was called “On the causes and nature of the union in Western Russia” (1842), but was not protected. He defended another work – “On the historical significance of Russian folk poetry.” He was one of the first researchers of the Ukrainian chronicles and publicistic works of the 17th century. He studied the problems of the relationship between the Russian and Ukrainian peoples. Since 1846 he worked at the University of Kiev. In the same year he became one of the founders of the Cyril and Methodius Society, for his participation in which was for a year imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, then exiled to Saratov and received a ban on teaching and publishing works. These prohibitions were lifted only after the accession of Alexander II. In the second half of the 50’s. began to prepare essays on the daily life of the Russian people, his way of life and customs in the 16th and 17th centuries, which ended with the publication in 1860 of An Essay on the Home Life and Morals of the Great Russian People in the 16th and 17th Centuries. In 1859 he became a professor at St. Petersburg University. The first lecture course – “The History of Southern, Western, Northern and Eastern Rus in the Specific Period” – was a great success. At the same time, controversial provisions emerged that sparked discussion. In particular, Kostomarov argued that Novgorod the Great in the specific period is the heir of the “
Danilov AA Reference materials on the history of Russia IX – XIX centuries.