F. FM Dostoyevsky’s novel “Crime and Punishment” was published in 1866. His author lived most of his life in rather cramped material conditions, caused by the need to pay off his debts for the publication of the magazines “Epoch” and “Time”, undertaken by the Dostoevsky brothers until the death of his elder brother Mikhail. Therefore FM Dostoevsky was forced to “preempt” his novel to the publisher, and then painfully hurry to the deadline. He did not have enough time, like Tolstoy, to rewrite and rewrite seven times. Therefore, the novel “Crime and Punishment” is quite vulnerable in some respects. Much has been said about its stretch, the unnatural accumulation of individual episodes, and other compositional flaws.
But all that has been said can not obscure from us the fact that Dostoevsky’s work, his artistic perception of the world, is so new, original and brilliant that he forever entered as an innovator,
as the founder of a new school in the history of world literature.
The main artistic feature of the novel “Crime and Punishment” is the subtlety of psychological analysis. Psychology in Russian literature has been known for a long time. Dostoevsky himself also uses the traditions of M. Yu. Lermontov, who sought to prove that “the history of the human soul is hardly more interesting and instructive than the history of a whole people.” For Dostoyevsky, the novel is characterized by the penetration into psychology of portrayed heroes (whether it is the crystal-clear soul of Sonya Marmeladova or the dark curves of Svidrigailov’s soul), the desire not only to convey their reaction to the prevailing relations between people, but also the attitude of the person in these social circumstances (Marmeladov’s confession) .
To open the soul, the worldview of the characters helps the author to receive polyphony, polyphony in the novel. Each hero, in addition to participating in dialogues, utters an endless “inner” monologue, showing the reader what is happening in his soul.
Dostoevsky builds the whole action of the novel not so much on real events and their description, as on monologues and dialogues of heroes (here his own voice and voice of the author are intertwined). The writer delicately conveys the speech characteristics of each image, very responsive to the intonational system of speech of each character (this is clearly seen in Raskolnikov’s speech). From this creative setting comes another artistic feature of the novel – the conciseness of descriptions. Dostoevsky is interested not so much in what a person looks like, as in what is inside his soul. And it turns out,
An important artistic feature can be considered that the novel “Crime and Punishment” demands from us a deep philosophical understanding of life. His heroes (especially Raskolnikov) are people who seek, are obsessed with one idea. Such an idea, forcing the main character to forget about his own well-being, becomes the idea of ”blood in conscience”. Dostoevsky discusses it with the reader, Rodion with Marmeladov, Porfiry Petrovich, with readers in an article written by him. Throughout the novel there is a philosophical polemic about the content of the concept of “crime” (why Sonechka is a criminal, and Luzhin is a decent person in the eyes of society, although in reality everything is the other way around?).
Even the plot of the novel is based on the history of the crime (it is known that Dostoevsky read about something similar in the column of incidents). The passions in the novel are brought to the limit, there are no halftones in it. The peculiarity of the novel is also the extreme tension of the conflict. Normal, ordinary life is boring for his protagonist.
All listed artistic features of the novel do. his masterpiece of Russian and world literature, and his author – the founder of a new “psychological” approach to depicting phenomena of reality.