The creative development of the writer was influenced by the classics of literature of the 19th century: C. Dickens, G. Kleist, G. Flaubert, F. Dostoyevsky, and others, as well as the Danish thinker S. Kierkegaard, posthumously recognized forerunner of existential philosophy. The traditions of the satirical depiction of the bureaucracy, the themes of guilt and punishment inherited from classical literature, the type of “little man” and grotesque imagery were synthesized in Kafka’s modernist picture of the world. Within this picture, the most incredible events are combined with banal everyday life, nonsense – with an inconceivable higher meaning, and the external life-likeness turns out to be an allegorical form of subjects unfolding in the sphere of the human spirit. The definition of “Kafka”, which is often denoted by this picture, has acquired the widest meaning,
The main source of Kafka’s work was his “inner autobiography,” that is, the personal spiritual experience that he derived from the events of his life, his relationships with the outside world and self-analysis. Its central “knots” formed three insoluble problems: the lifelong confrontation of the authoritarian power of the father, the contradictory perception of marriage as a way of gaining independence from the father and at the same time as obstacles to literary creativity, as well as acute dissatisfaction with the fruits of one’s own writing.
His writer has embodied his spiritual experience in original allegorical images and subjects, built on bizarre combinations of fantastic and everyday, tragic and ironic, naturalistic details and complex darkened symbols. In depicting the personality conflict with the world, Kafka placed his main emphasis on the study of the universal laws of being.