1. How has Russia’s ability to trade with other countries changed during the reign of Peter I?
Before the era of Peter I, Russia’s sphere of international activity was limited to Turkey and the Polish-Lithuanian state. When in the beginning of the XVIII century. the Russian fleet first appeared on the Baltic, and then on the Black Sea, Russia became one of the main participants in European politics and trade. In the export of Russia, except fur, there were industrial goods, iron, canvas.
Imports ceased to consist exclusively of weapons, fabrics, clothing and luxury goods, the import of industrial equipment began.
2. Assess the situation of Russia in the world in the late XIX – early XX century. List the composition of export goods. Why did Russia’s export goods at that time successfully compete with the goods of the developed countries of the West?
At the beginning of the XX century. Russia occupied the leading place in the world for export of agricultural products, forests; exported fur, fish, honey, etc. For developed countries, Russia was a raw material supplier, for developing countries it was a supplier of industrial products. Competition in the world market has not been so tough, there has not been such an overproduction of goods, which is observed now.
3. How did Russia’s geopolitical situation change after the Second World War?
If after the revolution, Russia practically did not participate in the world economy, then after the Second World War, Russia’s external economic ties expanded considerably, with most of them coming from the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. In fact, the Soviet Union controlled these countries.
Becoming the possessor of nuclear weapons, the USSR became one of the world’s two superpowers. Relations with developing countries have played a large role; The Soviet Union supplied military equipment there, and built heavy industry enterprises. The export of agricultural products almost ceased.
4. What impact on the development of Russia had a “cold war”?
The basis of the “cold war” was the arms race, that is, the continuous improvement of weapons, the production of more and more types of weapons.
The economy of the USSR did not “withstand the burden of military spending” and the costs of maintaining the countries of the socialist camp. The country fell into a deep economic and political crisis, which has not been fully overcome even now.
5. In which economic areas, changes in the direction and nature of Russia’s foreign economic relations had a decisive influence on the “economic well-being” of the territory?
The main regions where Russia’s export flows are formed and which depend on exports most of all depend on these are the territorially remote and sparsely populated, economically unilaterally mastered regions of the country. First of all, this...is the north of Western Siberia, where oil and gas, which form the basis of Russian exports, come from. Then follows the south of Eastern Siberia, where the timber, aluminum, pulp and paper products are exported. These areas are highly dependent on exports, their budget is largely formed as a result of trade with foreign countries. In their industry structure, “export industries” occupy more than 50%. Refer again to table 2 of the appendix: Western Siberia as a whole has a 65% share of the fuel industry, while in Eastern Siberia the share of metallurgy is 51%. If you look at the sectoral structure of the subjects of the Federation, the dominance of export industries will be even more significant. Krasnoyarsk region has a 67% share of non-ferrous metallurgy.
Other areas are distinguished by a diverse industry and therefore their economy is more stable and less dependent on foreign economic ties. Nevertheless, the European North, as well as the Urals and Povolzhsky regions, which supply natural gas, oil products and mineral fertilizers, play a significant role in Russian exports.
6. Compare the position of Russia in the world at the beginning of the 20th century. and at the beginning of the XXI century. What is the similarity and difference?
First, the territory of Russia in the early XX century. was significantly larger than now. It included all former Soviet republics and also Poland and Finland. But Russia’s military power was not so significant. In 1905, the Russian-Japanese war was lost. At the beginning of the 21st century, despite the economic crisis, Russia continues to be one of the few nuclear powers.
Despite the extreme backwardness in industry, Russia is a full member of the “club of world leaders” – the G-7, which with the participation of Russia became the G8.
At the beginning of the century, Russia was a leading supplier of agricultural products. Now Russia continues to buy a large amount of food, especially meat and meat products, milk powder, butter, confectionery, citrus, tea and coffee, alcoholic beverages, vegetable oil, sugar. Importing a significant portion of food products, Russia is in some way dependent on these supplies. A sudden cessation of food supplies can lead to social tension and even political instability.
Russia is also highly dependent on exports – the main revenues to the Russian budget are the funds received from the sale of raw materials. The Russian economy is sensitive to fluctuations in fuel prices on the world market.
Nevertheless, at the beginning of the 21st century, as at the beginning of the 20th century, Russia is the world’s largest power, possessing, apart from raw materials, enormous industrial and creative potential, skilled workers, brilliant scientists, artists, artists, poets, etc. .