It is common knowledge that it is customary to refer to the younger school age the age period of children from 7 to 11 years. The main activity in children at this age is learning activity. The period begins with the process of adaptation to the school, which lasts 5-6 weeks, and begins approximately from the second week of training a child in grade 1.
The younger schoolchildren are dominated by thinking, which ceases to be visually-figurative and becomes verbal-logical. The child uses surgery, but, as a rule, this is still a specific operation. By the end of this period there are differences of children in the way of thinking:
1. Children-theorists (thinkers) – they easily solve problems that require reasoning and speculation;
2. Practice children – they need a reliance on visibility;
3. Children-artists, who have well-developed imaginative thinking.
Due to the learning process, primary scientific concepts begin to form in younger schoolchildren. Developed theoretical thinking, which contributes to the fact that now the child is able to perform tasks, focusing not only on the external features of objects, but also on internal properties and relationships.
Perception becomes synthesizing. Children learn to establish links between the elements of the perceived, but in the initial period, the perception may not yet be sufficiently differentiated, so children can confuse similar in appearance letters and numbers.
Imagination remains well developed. so this period is considered sensitive for the development of creative thinking and imagination. There are a number of programs that allow to develop the creative abilities of pupils of lower grades.
Memory in children of primary school age develops in two directions – in the... direction of arbitrariness and in the direction of meaningfulness. Unlike preschool children, junior high school students are able to memorize material, even if it is not interesting to them, but is necessary. Every year more reliance is being placed on arbitrary memory. Children of this period have a well developed mechanical memory, but at the same time, the semantic memory is being improved, it is understanding the information, the children remember it. Memory and thinking are inextricably linked.
Very intensively develops in younger schoolchildren attention. There are a number of techniques that allow you to find out at what level the attention is in the child. For example, a modification of the method of Pieron-Ruzer. It allows you to identify the concentration and stability of attention.
Younger schoolchildren can concentrate on activities that are uninteresting to them, but almost all the period of education in primary school is nevertheless dominated by involuntary attention. and an arbitrary one is formed only to the end of grade 4 thanks to the training activities. One type of activity, junior schoolchildren can practice 10-20 minutes.
In children of primary school age, personal characteristics continue to develop. Children learn moral concepts.
Younger schoolchildren have even more fears than they used to. School fears are becoming dominant. Children of this age are clearly manifested fears of a mystical nature. Children continue to fear death, weather phenomena. Emotional sphere in younger schoolchildren is stabilizing. A child who for some reason did not study at school, misses this period.
The game has ceased to be the leading activity of the child. Now her place is occupied by training.