(1836 – 1861)
Dobrolyubov Nikolai Alexandrovich (1836-1861). Russian publicist, literary critic, poet, revolutionary democrat. Nikolai Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov was born on February 5 (in the old style – January 24) in 1836 in the family of a very wealthy priest, in Nizhny Novgorod. Nikolai Dobrolyubov had only a boundless attachment to his mother – kind, friendly, intelligent and noble: “From her,” wrote Dobrolyubov in his diary shortly after his mother’s death, “I got my best qualities, I grew attached to it from the first days of my childhood; my heart flew, wherever I was, for it was everything that I did. ” To his father he was aloof, but with respect and respect. Already in three years Nikolay Dobrolyubov perfectly recited many of the fables of IA Krylov. When Nicholas turned 8, his education was occupied by a seminarist of the philosophical class, MA Kostrov, who later married Dobrolyubov’s sister. Kostrov refused the standard memorization and tried to develop the student’s thinking abilities. When the 11-year-old Nikolai Dobrolyubov was sent to the senior class of the spiritual school, he impressed everyone by the meaningfulness of the answers and by reading. A year later, he moved to the seminary, where he was also among the first students, despite the fact that most of them were older than Nicholas for 4-5 years. The works of the seminarian Dobrolyubov occupied 30, 40, and sometimes 100 sheets. Particularly
In 1853 he came to St. Petersburg, where in 1857 he graduated from the Main Pedagogical Institute. At the institute he was the head of the opposition student circle, in 1855 he produced an illegal handwritten newspaper “Rumors”. In 1856, Nikolai Dobrolyubov met N. G. Chernyshevsky and N. A. Nekrasov and soon began to collaborate in the journal Sovremennik as editor of the critical bibliographic department. In 1859-1861, as a compiler, editor and main author of the satirical department of Sovremennik, Whistle, he published feuilletons and verse parodies. In 1857-1859, simultaneously with his work in Sovremennik, he was published in the Journal for Education. In May 1860, Nikolai Dobrolyubov, at the insistence of friends, went abroad to treat tuberculosis that began. He lived in Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy, but it was not possible to cure tuberculosis. In July 1861 Nikolai Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov returned to Petersburg, where on November 29 (according to the old style – November 17), 1861 died. He was buried at the Volkova Cemetery Literary Bridge in St. Petersburg (next to the grave of Belinsky).
Among the works of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov are poems, satires, verse parodies, journalism on literary, philosophical and historical themes: “On the 50th anniversary of NI Grech” (1854; poem), “Ode to the death of Nicholas I” (1855; poem), “On the degree of participation of the people in the development of Russian literature” (1858, article), “The first years of the reign of Peter the Great” (1858; article), “Russian civilization, composed by Mr. Zherebtsov” (1858; article), “Literary trivia last year “(1859; article),” What is Oblomovism? ” (1859, an article on the novel by IA Goncharov “Oblomov”), “The Dark Kingdom” (1859, an article on the plays of Alexander Ostrovsky), “Ray of Light in the Dark Realm” (1859; Ostrovsky), “