First a small introduction. I went to school in first grade in 1945. Then the children were admitted to school from the age of 8. I remember: there was a devastation after the war, a card system, a hungry childhood. Then there was no school uniform. Girls sewed dresses from sacking. Boys and girls studied in different schools. My first teacher was Nina Ivanovna, the second was Elena Stepanovna Obrubova. which came to us in the third grade. She lived in a working barracks and she still studied at a teacher’s college. This was a tall girl with two braids, ten years older than us. She taught us in her own way: from the third grade she taught us to write essays. She asked us to have albums where we had to write our feedback about the books we read. Leaving school, she returned my children’s essays to me.
Elena Stepanovna Obrubova gave us the first knowledge of writing works, instilled in us a love for the Russian language and Russian literature.
Each essay should
consist of several elements: an epigraph, an introduction, the main part and a conclusion. An epigraph is not necessary. But still, still… It must concentrate the idea of writing. For an epigraph it is possible to take lines from the text on which the composition, proverbs and sayings, statements of writers, public and political figures are written. For example, you can look at my website www. lvmir. narod. ru in the book “The History of Ancient Holy Russia…”.
So, the main parts of the composition are the introduction, the main part and the conclusion, which are denoted by Roman numerals and should be entitled. The writing should first be written on a draft, leaving room for additions that may arise during the writing of the essay.
In the introduction, we can talk about the era of writing a book, the history of the creation of the book, the prototypes of heroes, and so on.
The main part of the plan should consist of several items, which are represented by Arabic numerals, and the sub-items – with letters from the alphabet.
For example, the theme: “The
image of the hero…” should include the items:
1) Origin, social position.
3) Character traits.
4) The relationship of the hero with other actors.
5) The attitude of other actors to this hero.
6) Their participation in the public life of the country.
8) And so on. All this is confirmed by quotations from the text.
In conclusion, you can summarize, draw conclusions on this topic, talk about your relationship to this hero, etc.
With a comparative description of the two heroes, you can use the same points in the plan, only in comparison, in comparison. It’s harder. I will give two examples of drawing up a plan.
Theme: “My favorite hero is Natasha Rostova” (based on Leo Tolstoy’s novel “War and Peace”).
1) Natasha Rostov – my favorite heroine.
2) My first acquaintance with the heroes of the novel.
II The main part.
1) What attracts me to Natasha Rostov:
A) naturalness, simplicity, absence of farce and lies;
B) poetry, musicality;
C) proximity to the people’s life;
D) Femininity and charisma;
D. patriotism manifested by the Patriotic War of 1812;
E) sensitivity, responsiveness;
G. Natasha Rostov – mother and wife.
Embodiment in Natasha Rostova of high moral spiritual qualities.
Theme: “Patriotism of Russian people in the Patriotic War of 1812”.
1) The threat looming over Russia in 1812.
2) The just nature of the Patriotic War of 1812.
II The main part.
Patriotism of Russian people against the invasion of Napoleon.
1) Consciousness of the impossibility of obeying the invaders.
A) the behavior of the inhabitants of Smolensk (vol. 3, part 2, Chapter 4);
B) abandonment of Moscow residents;
C) the mood of the army, the peasant masses, the best part of the nobility, the working population of the city (vol. 4, part 1, Chapter 4).
2) The nomination of a national commander (vol.4, part 2, Chapter 25).
3) Refusal of the peasants to supply supplies to the French.
4) Partisan movement (v. 4, part 3, Chapters 4-11).
5) Heroism of troops in the Battle of Borodino (v. 4, part 2, Chapters 33, 19, 20).
6) Platon Karataev and Tikhon Shcherbaty (volume 3, part 2, Chapter 20, 25).
Love for the Motherland is a beautiful trait of a national character.
So, to write a good composition, you need to know those parts of the work, to let it through the prism of your soul, to observe the 4 elements of the plan: the epigraph, the introduction, the main part, the conclusion. Be able to quote correctly, at the end of the essay indicate the source of quoting. In schools, essays are conducted to check the students’ knowledge of texts, the ability to logically express thoughts, test the knowledge of the grammar of the Russian language. All this comes with experience and practice.
Typical errors of students in terms of works should be considered:
1) Inability to understand the specifics of the topic.
2) Wrong approach to the topic of entry.
3) Absence of a number of questions in the main part.
4) The discrepancy between the conclusion and the content of the essay. For example, the text said about the beloved hero, and in conclusion – the importance of creativity Leo Tolstoy.
5) Absence of conclusions and generalizations.
6) Presence of stylistic, grammatical, syntactic errors.
7) Wrong graphic design of the plan, random numbering of items. The plan is followed first by Roman numerals, then Arabic numerals, then – alphabetic numbering.
The student should pay attention to the epigraph. Although it is not required in the composition, but a successful epigraph is evidence that the student has correctly understood the material. The epigraph should correspond to the topic, be expressive, concise. When the epigraph should be a reference to the source. And there must be a correct graphical layout.
It is necessary to prepare for the composition in advance, it is advisable to read additional literature. In the statement, avoid the same mistakes as in the plan: the use of material that is not relevant to the topic, the incompleteness of the coverage of the material, the lack of consistency in presentation, the disproportion of parts, the inconsistency of writing the plan, the repetition of the same thoughts, the inability to use quotations (absence or excessive their use when the composition turns into a set of citations), the distortion of historical, literary, biographical facts, an artificial connection with the present, the absence of logical transitions (“bridges”) from one part with Inonu to another, copying from various sources.
At the end of the work, mention should be made of the literature used. There may also be errors. First you need to specify the name of the author, then the name of the source, the page (volume, part, chapter, page), the year of publication, the name of the publisher. After finishing the work on the draft, you must carefully check it, making sure that everything is in order, to rewrite it to a clean copy.