Types of pollution of continents, oceans and their sources

Pollution is understood as the entry into the environment of substances that degrade the quality of individual components of nature and cause damage to natural complexes, which is particularly detrimental to representatives of the organic world.

Pollution of the natural environment, depending on the source of their origin, is divided into mechanical, chemical, physical, biological and radiation. To mechanical include pollution by solid particles, household and industrial waste, accumulating on the earth’s surface: in soil, water, air. Chemical pollution is pollution by substances and compounds of artificial origin that enter the geographic environment and disrupt the processes of matter and energy cycling. Biological pollution is considered to be the spread of organisms that have emerged as a result of human activity. An example of such contamination may be bacteriological weapons, new viruses that cause epidemics of dangerous diseases, as well as the rapid multiplication

of individual plant or animal species, resettled by man from one habitat to another. Physical contamination is attributed to changes in thermal, electrical, radiation conditions caused by human activity, as well as vibrations and noise.

Nowadays, the main sources of pollution of the natural environment are energy enterprises, all industrial facilities, agriculture, military facilities, various types of transport, especially motor transport. They constantly pollute the environment with a lot of dangerous substances. In terms of the negative consequences, chemical pollution is released. One of its varieties is the pollution of nature by oil and oil products.

Oil pollution is most often the result of accidents that occur in places of oil extraction or during its transportation. Oil is lighter than water, so it does not mix with it, and the film spreads over the surface, forming huge oil spots. For example, an ecological accident for the coast of Alaska was the accident of the Exxon Laus tanker in 1989. This tanker landed on reefs, resulting in the Pacific Ocean poured 240 thousand tons of oil. On areas of the

earth’s surface contaminated with oil, the circulation of substances is disrupted: evaporation, gas exchange, temperature changes. The greatest harm is caused by oil pollution to the organic world, especially to inhabitants of reservoirs.

Radiation pollution, which occurs when nuclear weapons are tested, radioactive waste is buried, accidents and catastrophes at nuclear power plants and submarines with atomic engines or nuclear weapons on board are very dangerous.

And an important source of danger for nature was and still is military activity. Huge damage to the environment is caused by tests of various types of weapons, training and maneuvers. Negative impact on natural systems of military conflicts, during which the destruction of industrial facilities, which leads to the release of hazardous substances into the environment.

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Types of pollution of continents, oceans and their sources