The Mongolian yoke in the 13th-14th centuries

The Mongolian yoke in the 13th-14th centuries

At the beginning of the XIII century. the state of the Jurden has weakened noticeably. The South Song Empire was preparing to regain its northern lands. However, these plans did not come true because a new formidable force arose-the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan.

South Song sent envoys and military advisers to Genghis Khan. They taught the Mongols to Chinese military science, including the art of storming fortified cities with siege mechanisms. In 1234 the Mongolian cavalry destroyed the state of Jin. However, contrary to expectations, the Mongols did not become allies of the Southern Song. They immediately began the conquest of southern China. Soon Khan Khubilai, the grandson of Genghis Khan, moved his capital to Yanjin and attacked the Southern Song empire. In 1271, having subdued her most, Kubilai announced the founding of a new Chinese Yuan dynasty.

Over the following years, the scattered Chinese garrisons offered the Mongols heroic resistance, but the forces were unequal. In 1279 the remnants of the Sung troops were surrounded and destroyed on the coast of the South China Sea. One of the dignitaries, not wanting to witness the humiliation of the last minor Sun Emperor, planted the boy on his back and dashed into the sea. Both drowned, and the Sun dynasty ceased to exist.

Under the rule of Khubilai there was a vast territory. His empire included China, Mongolia and Tibet. The plans of the first Yuan emperor were the conquest of Japan. However, attempts

to seize this country were unsuccessful.

The Mongol conquest had a negative impact on China’s domestic life. The country was ruthlessly devastated. The Mongols destroyed hundreds of thousands of Chinese, and several millions were turned into slaves. A lot of arable land was turned into pastures and hunting grounds of the Mongolian nobility. The Mongolian language became the official language. The Chinese were mercilessly exploited and humiliated in every way. They were forbidden to go out at night to the streets, to have arms and horses, to study military affairs, to master foreign languages, etc. At first the Mongols tried to remove from the management of Chinese officials altogether. But soon began to invite the Chinese to the civil service, although at the lowest positions.

National oppression was perceived by the Chinese very painfully. Secret organizations were created whose goal was to free the country from foreign domination. In 1351g. in China, an anti-Mongol uprising began. In the north, detachments of the rebels were routed. The south of the country was under the control of one of the leaders of the rebels Zhu Yuanzhang. He brought the struggle against the Mongols to a victorious end. In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang occupied Beijing, proclaimed himself emperor and established the Ming Dynasty – Shining. The capital of the state was the city of Ytian. Mongolian rule is over.

The Mongolian yoke in the 13th-14th centuries