The first Carolingians were still majordomami with “lazy kings”. The most notable figure among them was Carl Martell. In 732, Carl Martell in the Battle of Poitiers defeated the Arabs and, perhaps, saved Europe from this Arab invasion. This battle convinced Karl Martell that it was time to replace the militiamen with warriors-horsemen in the militia’s army, otherwise the Arabs would not be able to stop. But the warrior-horsemen had to pay for the service. This problem Karl Martell decided as follows. He took away the land and disobedient grandees from the church and gave horse warriors land plots. Land grants were called Benefits. Not only the land was given, but also the peasants who lived on it. At first the benefices complained in time, but over time they became hereditary possession – Theod. The owner of the feud was called a feudal lord. The one who held the benefices, or the feud, was obliged to carry military or other service to the paymaster and became
his Vassal, that is, a servant. If he refused to serve or did not perform his duties in bad faith, then the benefices from him were taken away. Benefficial reform initiated the medieval chivalry and strengthened the military organization of the Carolingian state.
After the death of Charles Martel, whom Pope Gregory III called “almost king,” the power of the mayor went to his son Pepin Korotkiy. The new mayor acted decisively. After reconciling with the pope and enlisting his support, he proclaimed himself king, and the last “lazy king” was imprisoned in a monastery. After that, Pepin the Short, already a king, helped the Pope to found the Papal State, the Apostolic Capital, in Middle Italy. The grateful daddy imputed to the Franks the duty to further elect his kings from the line of Pipin the Short. Thus, during the reign of Pepin Short, there was a close political alliance between the church and the royal power, beneficial to both sides.
The Franks called Pipin “short” for nothing – he really was a little man, but, as they say, kicked the ground with his feet. But
he was physically strong and skillfully wielded a sword of his own.
After Pepin Short, his 26-year-old son Karl the Great became one of the most famous European monarchs in the name of which the word “king” comes from. Historians called him “the father of Europe.”
Charlemagne believed that he was called upon to become a pillar of Christianity and to revive the Western Roman Empire, and if he expanded his kingdom, it would also expand the kingdom of God. Therefore, Charlemagne practically did not part with the warhorse. The conquered pagan tribes and peoples forcibly baptized. He fought against the Muslim Arabs, against the Germanic tribe of the Saxons and, especially, against the Slavic tribes. He defeated the Avarian Kaganate, annexed to his possessions Bavaria, Langobard Kingdom. In the occupied territories, Karl built border fortifications – “stamps”.
The powerful West European state, created by Charles the Great, was inhabited by dozens of tribes and peoples. And it was already an empire. But until 800, Charlemagne had no imperial title, which only the Pope could provide. Karl found a way to get the coveted title. He helped the pope to withstand the rebellious nobility, hoping for his appreciation. And in fact, in 800, just on Christmas Day, the Pope crowned Charles in the Roman Cathedral of St. Peter’s imperial crown. Over time, the imperial title of Charles recognized and the Byzantine emperor, to whom Charles for the pliability gave Venice and Dalmatia. Who benefited more from this political trickery – the Pope or the Emperor of the Franks? Of course, Dad, because a huge Christian empire was to be led by the church. However, Charlemagne did not become an obedient tool in the hands of the pope.
Mark is a border fortification in the Frankish state, an administrative district governed by the margrave.
Feud is the land or income from it, paid by the king or lord to the vassal in hereditary possession as payment for service.
Senor is a feudal lord, who has vassals-dependent feudal lords.
Vassal – the feudal lord, who received land from the seigneur and depended on him.