Society and government of medieval China

The Chinese society consisted of: 1) a hereditary aristocracy; 2) officials; 3) free peasants and artisans, that is, “good people”; 4) hired workers, half-laborers and slaves, that is, “cheap people.” All of them were considered subjects of the emperor.

The top of the society was the hereditary aristocracy, which was given certain titles and ranks. Each title was provided with a land allotment of the appropriate size. Honorary titles were also given to individuals of non-aristocratic origin for special services to the state.

A significant part of the public elite was made up by officials. They were divided into nine grades, with subsequent division. Each rank was matched by cash or in kind in the form of land ownership. Officials could not inherit neither their rank, nor the post, nor the land they received. To become an official, it was necessary to pass the state examination. The creature gili three levels of examinations. Examinations of the highest

level had to be taken at the imperial court. In addition to the general educational level, knowledge of literature and works of Confucius, the reliability of the future official was also checked. It was not strange if a person who did not meet his appointment was demoted. Therefore, among officials, insecurity reigned in the future and sycophancy flourished. Despite this, there were families in China,

At the lowest step of the social ladder were free peasants, artisans and merchants, that is, “good people.” The duties of the peasant included the cultivation of land, the timely payment of taxes and the performance of duties of all kinds. From the peasant, as well as from the official, strict observance of the rules in clothing, behavior and even farming was required. The peasant did not have the right to leave his place of residence. An elder who followed the fulfillment of duties played an important role in the village. It was to the village elder that the peasant should apply for any questions. Taxes and duties were also imposed on artisans and merchants.

XI century. “New Tang history”

about exams for those who wanted to become a government official

All those who came from school were called disciples, and those who were nominated in provinces and districts were called “xian Hun”. Both the first and second came to the local chiefs, who were to select the best.

The following categories were established on this system: outstanding talent, a connoisseur of canonical books, a gifted scientist, an outstanding scientist, a connoisseur of laws, a literary expert, a connoisseur of mathematics, one who knows one story; three stories; the book “Rites”, recommended by the province, a capable teenager…

“Son of Heaven” issued decrees and personally conducted the selection in order to attract the best talents. This was called imperial selection…

The last step took personally dependent people – wage workers, half-slaves and slaves, that is, “cheap people.” They did not pay taxes and were disenfranchised.

The supreme power was in the hands of the emperor. “Son of Heaven.” He had unlimited rights. With him there was a state council, which included his relatives and big dignitaries. One of them served as the first minister

The country was administered through three chambers. Chief among them was in charge of executive authorities. She was subordinated to several departments: financial, military, rites, ranks, public works, etc. The other two chambers prepared and promulgated the decrees of the emperor, arranged receptions and solemn ceremonies in his honor. Separately from the departments there were palace administrations that served the emperor, guarded the treasury, organized the reception of foreign ambassadors. The empire was divided into provinces, and they – into districts, counties, volosts, villages.

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Society and government of medieval China