Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol is a prose writer and playwright, whose work developed at the intersection of Russian and Ukrainian cultures and combined romantic and realistic features. As the author of a number of works on the Ukrainian theme, Gogol spoke in Russian literature as the discoverer of the Ukrainian cultural world. As the author of works on the Russian reality of the 1830s-1840s, he acquired the glory of the creator of the panorama of the life of the nineteenth-century landowner-serf and bureaucratic Russia.
The life of N. Gogol in dates and facts
April 1, 1809 – was born in the village Sorochintsy Myrhorod Uyezd, Poltava province, in the family of a landowner, who was fond of home theater and wrote plays in the Ukrainian language. Soon after birth, his parents moved him to the village of Vasilievka in the same district where their estate was located.
1821-1828 years. – I studied at the Gymnasium of the Higher Sciences of Nezhin. Preference in the gymnasium was given to humanitarian education, so many gymnasium students showed interest in literature and theater. Among them was Gogol, who tried his hand at writing and glittered on the stage of the gymnasium theater.
In 1828, at the end of the gymnasium, Gogol moved to St. Petersburg, where he made several attempts to gain a foothold in any field: get a job in the bureaucracy, enter the theater stage, go out to the public with his own composition – the romantic poem “Ganz
1831-1832 – Two volumes of the collection of “Ukrainian” stories by N. Gogol “Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka” were published. They were enthusiastically received by writers, critics and readers.
1835 – two new collections of the writer were published: Mirgorod and Arabesques.
April 19, 1836 at the Alexandrinsky Theater in St. Petersburg premiere of Gogol’s “Inspector General”, despite the emphasized favor of Emperor Nicholas I and obvious success with the public, critical evaluations. Unsatisfied with the reaction to the play, Gogol again went abroad.
1836-1848 – years of stay abroad. During this time, the writer traveled almost the whole of Western Europe, twice visited his homeland, sailed the Mediterranean, made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to the Holy Sepulcher. The longest – about four years – he lived in Italy.
1842 – the publication of the first volume of the poem “Dead Souls”, which became the most significant work of Gogol. After the publication of this volume, the author undertook the writing of the second part.
In 1845, while in a state of severe spiritual crisis, Gogol betrayed the almost completed manuscript of the second volume of Dead Souls.
1847 – published a series of articles “Selected places from correspondence with friends,” met with harsh criticism, above all, by the authoritative “arbiter” of the then Russian literature VG Belinsky.
In 1848, Gogol fulfilled his long-standing dream of “traveling through Russia” in order to get deeper acquainted with her life. During this trip he visited his “little homeland”, lived for half a year in Odessa, visited the famous Optina desert, where he met with clerics, but most of the time he spent in Moscow. His main literary work of this period was the second volume of Dead Souls.
In 1852, as a result of a new emotional crisis, the writer again burned the manuscript of the second volume of Dead Souls.
February 21, 1852 – died as a result of complete physical and spiritual exhaustion.