# Biography of John Napier

John Neper can rightly be called the star of mathematics and theology.

###### Childhood and early years

John Nepper, born in 1550, came from a noble family. His father, Sir Archibald Nepper, the seventh Lord Merchiston, was a significant figure in Scotland in the sixteenth century, and his mother, Janet Bothwell, was a daughter of a member of the Scottish Parliament of the Three Estates.

In many respects following the noble traditions of the time, parents gave the child to school only when he was 13 years old. However, the formation of John quickly ends, as the school he throws and decides to go on a journey to mainland Europe. Little is known about his life outside of England. In 1571, Nipper returned to Scotland.

###### Theology and Discoveries

John Nepper, like his father, shows a keen interest in religious matters. Being an ardent opponent of Catholicism, Nepper Junior participates in all political and religious disputes of his time, which is largely promoted

###### Contribution to mathematics

Napier’s interest in astronomy leads him to the study of mathematics. All his free time, the scientist devotes himself to the research and compilation of his own methods of performing calculations that could facilitate the work of astronomers. The logarithm, as we know it today, was first proposed by Nepper, who, in the course of his research, developed a new, simpler way of complex numerical calculations. He discovers that, by introducing an exponent, the multiplication

In his second work, Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio, published posthumously, Napier develops the theory of decimal fractions, first proposed by the Flemish mathematician Simon Stevin. Napier’s assumption that the whole part of a number can be separated from its decimal part by a simple dot produces a furore in the UK. Advances in computing through the use of logarithms not only simplified manual calculations, but also opened the door to further scientific discoveries in astronomy, dynamics, physics and even astrology.

Despite the fact that the introduction of logarithms overshadows all other discoveries of the scientist, he nevertheless made a considerable contribution to the sphere of spherical trigonometry. Two formulas known as “formulas of the Napier analogy” used in solving spherical triangles, as well as an invention called the “Nepa rods” – a mechanical calculator, with which you can perform operations of multiplication, division, extraction of square and cubic roots, also does the honor this giant of mathematical thought. His theories of the late period were set forth in the book Rabdologiae seu Numerationis per Virgulas libri duo.

###### Personal life

In 1572, John Nepper connected himself by marriage with Elizabeth Sterling, the daughter of James Sterling, Lord Cyrus and Codder in the fourth generation. The Lord sends a couple of children. But in 1579 Elizabeth dies, and Napier marries a second time, on Agnes Chizhholm, from which he will have ten children.

###### Death and heritage

John Nepper left this world on April 4, 1617, the reason for which, presumably, was the gout he suffered. The scientist was buried in the Church of St. Cuthbert in Edinburgh. Only a small example of respect for his contribution to science can be the fact that in his honor was named the unit of measurement in electrical engineering, an alternative decibel, as well as the University of Edinburgh, Napier, located in the capital of Scotland. Also, on the moon there is a crater, named after this outstanding scientist.

**Biography of John Napier**