In the X-XV centuries. with the aim of dissociating themselves from the old monastic associations, in which the discipline decayed, dozens of new monastic unions were formed in the Catholic Church. They were called Orders. Each order had its own Charter. Supervised by the Order of the Grand Master or General, they were selected by the clergy and claimed by the pope. The orders were different. Some justified themselves in the countryside or in the city, others led a wandering life.
We will get acquainted with several influential Catholic orders, whose monasteries were also in Ukraine.
One of them is the Benedictine Order. He was founded in 530 by Saint Benedict of Nursia. The charter of this order required monks to conduct their lives in prayers, obedience and physical work.
V-VI centuries. From the statute of Saint Benedict on the organization of monastic life
The monastery… should be organized in such a way that everything necessary is done in it; he
must have water, a mill, a garden and various crafts, so that the monks do not have to leave his limits, for this is detrimental to their souls…
Benedictines showed an example of diligence to the monks of other orders, although not all of this example followed. In general, the monasteries contributed to the economic recovery in medieval Europe. So “it was the monks who laid the famous vineyards in Burgundy and in the Rhine valley.” They taught the Europeans the use of peaches, apricots, pears, plums, guelderies, gooseberries, nuts, acquainted them with many garden crops and medicinal plants, invented beekeeping, and laid the foundation for European silkworm breeding.
Built up by Europe with its monasteries and Bernardine Order, named after the famous church scientist and initiator of the Second Crusade – Bernard Clervous. This order became one of the richest in the Catholic world.
The son of the Italian merchant Francis founded the Order of the Franciscans. Francis preached charity and love for all living things. He tried to do the impossible – to reconcile man with nature,
rich with the poor, the poor and poverty. The Franciscans led a wandering life. Irreconcilable to heretics, they supported the popes.
In Spain in 1215 the monk Dominique founded the Dominican Order. The symbol of this order was the image of a dog with a lit torch in its mouth. The Order entirely gave itself over to the struggle against the Heresy, spreading Catholicism. Dominicans worked in medieval universities, their monasteries provided the church with cardinals, even popes.
The charter demanded that the Franciscans and Dominicans live in poverty, but their monasteries became the richest in Europe.
During the Crusades there were also spiritual and knightly orders, whose members pledged to live in poverty, to fight against “the enemies of the Christian faith.” If the monks of other orders spent their lives in prayers and work, then the members of the spiritual and knightly orders fought. They defended the interests of papacy, burghers and, of course, chivalry. It was the Order of the Hospitallers, the Templars, whose first refuge was in Jerusalem the place where the temple of the Jewish King Solomon, the Teutonic, etc. was once named. The Hospitallers were later called the Maltese, as they moved to the island of Malta.
The Order is a monastic or spiritual and knightly Catholic community with a specific charter.
The charter is a set of rules, according to which the monks and workshops lived.
Heresy is a religious teaching that refutes the main provisions of the church and its organizational forms.
Heretic follower of heresy.