Townspeople had in the city and its district fields and gardens, gardens and vineyards, kept cows and pigs, engaged in beekeeping and fishing. But unlike the peasants, they were primarily artisans: blacksmiths, co-workers, cobblers, barbers, bakers, brewers, weavers, tailors, carpenters, masons, etc. From the peasants, they were also distinguished by the fact that they produced their products for sale, worked To the market.
Craftsmen united in professional organizations – the Workshop. Why did they do this? Together it was more convenient to defend themselves against the willfulness of the lords, and most importantly from the competitors who came from other cities. At that time, the demand for most handicraft products was small, since the peasants provided themselves with almost
The workshops arose with the advent of cities, in the X-XIII centuries. Of course, at the current factory or factory workshops they were completely different. Each workshop master worked in his workshop, with his tools, he made his goods from beginning to end.
Together with the master worked his family members, one or two Apprentices and several students, whom the master taught craft. But among them only a master was considered a member of the workshop.
The number of shops in the cities grew. There were new specialties – corresponding workshops appeared, so in some cities there were dozens or even hundreds of shops. But there were cities without shops.
The masters were guided by the shop regulations. This was followed by an elected foreman of the shop, which fined offenders. In order for the shop production to sell and try to avoid competition among the masters, the charter introduced certain restrictions in production. So, he determined which tools and what raw materials to use, what kind of quality the goods could be, forbade working at night and on holidays, keep students
XIV century. From the shop regulations of the Frankfurtains
… None of the members of our workshop should make cloth with a border, except by order of the sergeants, who together with members of their families can wear such cloth.
… It is forbidden to use the seal attached to the bast, to those who are not a member of our workshop and do not live in the city.
… If found cloth with a border or cut places, or they will be refined with a light yarn, such cloth must be selected from the master, and the latter contributes… a fine.
… The fine will be paid by one who works on more than two looms.
… Two masters from each piece of cloth are levied on the coin, inspecting the cloth for the purpose of determining the quality of its washing.
The most powerful force in the city was the Patrician – rich merchants and moneylenders. The power belonged to them, they extracted from it for themselves a benefit. When the workshops were strengthened, craftsmen, small tradesmen and other ordinary citizens began to struggle against the absolute power of the patriciate. In those cities where the craft flourished, they defeated the shops, while in the merchant cities the victory was celebrated by the city elite.
In the XIV-XV centuries. the position of apprentices and students began to deteriorate. If before they could get out into the master, then at the end of the Middle Ages, many of them lost the opportunity. To become a master, it was necessary to make an entrance fee to the shop cash department, to make a Masterpiece on your own money, organize a banquet for the masters and their wives. Many people could not afford it. Therefore, the number of “lifelong” pupils and apprentices, that is, hired workers, increased. To protect their interests, they united in brotherhoods, sought to reduce the working day, increase wages.
The workshop is an association of artisans of one or similar specialties.
The apprentice is an assistant to the workshop master, who is preparing to become a master.
The shop regulations are the rules that determined the life of the shop.
The patriciate is a city top, consisting mainly of merchants.
A masterpiece is an exemplary product.