756 – the foundation of the Papal States with the center in Rome.
1054 – schism – the division of the church into the Catholic and Orthodox.
The Cluny movement and the reform activities of Pope Gregory VII:
- The election of Pan Roman by the conclave of the Cardinals; The introduction of the vow of celibacy for priests; Cancel the secular investment.
Crusades – the aggressive campaigns of Europeans to the east in order to save the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Reason – the request of the Byzantine Emperor Alexis I Komnin to help in the fight against the enemies of the Christians of the Seljuk Turks.
Purpose of the Crusades:
The seizure of new territories in the East, enrichment; the desire of the church to strengthen the influence of Catholicism in the East, the acquisition of wealth; attempt of the peasants to obtain land and personal freedom
Consequences of the Crusades:
The loss of popularity of the crusade; the deterioration of relations between the Christian church and Islam; destruction of historical and cultural monuments of the East; conquest and destruction of Constantinople; significant sacrifices among the population; acquaintance of Europeans with new agricultural cultures, crafts, positive changes in everyday life.
The dates of the Crusades:
Medieval culture of Western Europe