In the past, legends, songs, funny little genres and fairy tales were made and honed by oral traditions. With the advent of writing, they were literally reworked. Fairy tales were created not only for the sake of entertainment of listeners, but also for the purpose of their education. In fairy tales, the narrators expounded the experience of the people, their observations and ideas about the world and place of man in it, taught how to overcome evil with good. The image of an industrious and caring hero has always been a model of the ideal of the spiritual world of the people. World literature is rich in fairy tales, which bring us the joy to fly to the extraordinary countries of folk fantasy.
The victory of good in the tale of the Brothers Grimm. Among the German folk tales collected and processed by the brothers Grimm, there is a wonderful fairy tale “Mrs. Metelitsa”. To his “big” grief (the gift fell into the well), the main character hoped to find support
from her stepmother, but was disappointed. Instead of regretting the little girl, her stepmother scolded her and forced her to get a fix from the well. The girl could not help but obey the evil woman and jumped into the well. But there was a fantastic transformation: the heroine was on wonderful bows among thousands of wonderful flowers.
According to the laws of composition of a fairy tale, a girl meets with fairy-tale images three times: with bread in the oven, with apples and with Metelitsa itself. In all situations, the heroine showed restraint, diligence, kindness. For this and received a well-deserved award. And the daughter quickly fell through her lack of discipline, laziness, pride. Wise mistress Metelitsa punished her stepmother and her daughter. So, good overcame evil. Good is always where diligence and humanity dominate. This is the purpose of fairy tales: to protect the weak from cruelty and injustice.
What is the attraction of the fairy tale Gianni Rodari “Cipollino”. Bright fiction, interesting adventures of characters, a cheerful smile and irony full of fabulous works by Gianni
Rodari. Already his first fairy tale “The Adventures of Chippolino” won the sympathy of readers. We are wandering around a wonderful country where plant-animals live and act according to the laws of human society. A cheerful, witty and bizarre bulbous boy harasses the pompous lord of Tomato, the cruel Lemon, the glutton of Orange, the greedy Mandarin.
The writer displays a whole gallery of beautiful images, positive and negative, to show the diversity of human relationships. Over the adventures of Cipollino, you can laugh, worry, whether he can overcome obstacles, although in advance we are sure that he will overcome. And we sympathize with his friends sincerely, rejoice at their victories, as they defend justice. The fairy tale of Gianni Rodari is addressed not only to children, but to adults. Because it forces you to act in difficult circumstances. And who does not have them?
The power of great and real art in the tale of G. H. Andersen “The Nightingale”. Hans Christian Andersen is rightly considered “the king of a fairy tale”. The writer, like a real magician, penetrated the soul of a child, an adult, a simple gardener and a pompous gentleman, a court nobleman or emperor. He tried to find something in every person. The great storyteller believed that real art can create a miracle, make a man the best, as happened with the emperor in the fairy tale “The Nightingale”. After singing a small nondescript bird, even the emperor, fenced off from ordinary people and the whole world by the walls of the palace and courtiers, but a man with a kind heart, “tears came and rolled over the face.”
The Nightingale image is the embodiment of the power of great and real art. Despite the fact that the emperor exchanged it for an artificial time, in a time difficult for a person, he rushes to the rescue. Nightingale with his singing makes Death retreat. The emperor is ready to reward the bird generously. But he replied that “the highest jewel from which the heart of the singer rejoices,” there were tears in the eyes of the emperor.
The ideological thrust of Longfellow’s poem “The Song of Hiawatha.” His rare talent of the harbinger of the consciousness of people Longfellow showed in the poem “Song of Hiawatha”. It is the creative processing of the myths and legends of the Indians of North America, carried out under the influence of the appearance of the Finnish epic Kalevali. The poem impresses with the poetic character of the story of the exploits of the legendary Ojibwei leader, the wise and fearless Hiawathi. The hero is able to communicate not only with people, but with everything in the world around him and even with supernatural forces. Hiawatha inherent beautiful traits: kindness, courage, wisdom. One of the leading thoughts in the poem is the idea of overcoming all sorts of internecine strife in the name of peaceful existence on a generous land.
The mythologized god addresses the audience with an appeal:
Your power is in oneness, But disagreement is your evil; May there be peace between you, As between brothers!
Longfellow saw no other way than reconciling the Indians of North America with the civilization of white settlers. The poem has become a kind of call for unity of people.
The fabulous adventures of Robin Hood. Until this time, the most popular in England is the cycle about Robin Hood. The hero of these ballads had a real prototype, and the events depicted did occur in the late 12th – early 13th century. Robin Hood – one of the “forest brothers” – a robber who becomes a defender of the poor and offended. From this point of view, the unnamed authors of the cycle idealized the hero and his brotherhood of “gay people” whom he gathered in the Sherwood forest near Nottingham. Among the best there is a ballad about the clash between Guy Psborn and Robin Hood.
Representing the image of Gisborne, the narrator of the people says that the knight of the royal cavalry “was considered one of the best archers and swordsmen in the entire royal army.” But at the same time emphasizes that “his heart was treacherous and treacherous.” The brave Robin Hood kills the boastful knight, dresses in the clothes of Gisborne, frees his twin brother Little John. Together with the forest brothers, Robin Hood disperses sheriff guards and happily turns to the forest house. Unlike the tragic end of the ballad story, we have a happy ending of the work, typical of a fairy tale.