1. How do historians become useful thoughts of the Cossack era?
The most valuable asset of the oral folk art of the Cossack era are Historical Songs and Dumas. The dumas are called oral-poetic works about important events and outstanding figures of history, who were half-sung, half-spoken by traveling singers to musical accompaniment on bandura, kobza or lyre.
The hero of one of the thoughts is Samiylo Kishka. The Duma talks about the desperate attempt of Ukrainian prisoners to free themselves from the Turkish galleon-katorga. Many years wandered on a Turkish galley with Cossacks-twin brothers Samoilo. Finally I waited for the right moment. In the Duma, it is told how Alkanu-pasha, “The Prince of Trebizond,” had a dream that foreshadowed that his galley would be plundered, the warders were chopped off, and all the slaves released. That’s exactly what happened. The Turks, on the orders of Alkan Pasha, examined the galley, but did not notice anything and
fell asleep. The gut recovered the keys, unlocked the shackles, and the slaves rebelled. Soon the Sich Society welcomed the gut:
Healthy… healthy, Kishka Samiylo,
not die in captivity, You will not die with us, Cossacks, in freedom!
Based on written sources, historians have come to the conclusion that the Duma recreates real historical events. In the 80s of the 20th century, documents were found in the archives, confirming that in one of the battles with the Turks, Samiilo Kishka fell into Turkish bondage. For seven years he wandered around the galley, but he did not give up hope of liberation. When the chance presented itself, he raised the insurrection and returned home with his comrades.
2. What historical figures glorify historical songs?
The answer to this question is for example. So, the hero of the historical “Song of the Baid” was Ukrainian prince-hetman Dmytro Vishnevetsky. He glorified his name by the fact that in 1556 on the island of Malaya Khortitsa, which lies in the lower part of the Dnieper current, he built a
castle-fortress, which is considered the first Zaporizhian Sich. In one of the campaigns in the possession of the Crimean Khan and the Turkish fortresses, Dmitro Vyshnevetsky was taken prisoner and was transferred to the Turks. There “he… was thrown from the tower onto hooks, walled in the walls near the sea bay on the road from Constantinople to Gallate.” Clutching the edge with a hook, he lived in this state for three days, until the Turks killed him from the bow for scolding them faith “, – eyewitnesses of events tell.
According to legend, the Sultan Suleiman I, struck with exceptional courage and contempt for death, offered his mercy to the Ukrainian prince, if he goes over to his side. But Vishnevetsky chose to perish, rather than become a traitor.
The folk song about these events narrates as follows:
Oh, how the king shouted to his hayduk:
“You take Baida firmly in your hands,
you take Baidu and tie,
And hook him with a rib!”.
Oh, Baida is hanging and not a day, not two,
But not one night, not one hour;
And he looks at his
servant… “O my servant, you are my young,
Yes, give me a ray of light,
Give me a tight beam
and a little arrow!”.
3. Why did the cat ataman Ivan Sirko become the hero of many legends and legends?
The most famous ataman in the history of the Zaporozhye Sich was Ivan Sirko. He spent over 60 battles against the troops of the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate and has never failed. With his campaigns I. Sirko gained the glory of an invincible commander. He became a hero of many legends during his lifetime.
Folklore tradition connects with the name of Ivan Sirko the writing of a legendary letter to the Turkish sultan.
Folk tales testify that in response to the demand of the Turkish sultan Mehmed IV to recognize the dependence on Turkey and submit to it, “an invincible knight,” the Cossacks, led by Sirk, wrote the following witty letter:
“Zaporizhian Cossacks to the Turkish Sultan.
You are a devil of Turkey, a damned trait brother and companion and the most Lucifer secretary! What the hell are you to a knight? You will not be able to have the sons of Christianity under you; We are not afraid of your army, we will fight with you with water and water. You are a Babylonian cook, a Macedonian chariot, a Jerusalem brewer, an Alexandrian goat, a Great and Lesser Egyptian swineherd! .. So the Cossacks respond to you, you bastard! You are not worthy of the hogs of Christian jaws! We do not know the numbers, because we do not have a calendar, a month in the sky, a year in a book, and a day is like that for us! ..
Koshevoy ataman Ivan Sirko with all the Zaporozhye Kosh. “