The basis of the poem was the Karelian-Finnish folk epic songs, which in the 18th century. collected and processed by Elias Lennrot.
Ilmatar, the daughter of the air, lived in the air. But soon she became bored in the sky, and she went down to the sea. Waves picked up Ilmatar, and from the waters of the sea the daughter of the air became pregnant.
Ilmatar had a fruit of 700 years, but the birth did not come. She prayed to the supreme deity of the sky, the thunderer Ukko, so that he helped her get rid of the burden. After a while I flew past the duck, I looked for a place for the nest. Ilmatar came to the aid of the duck: she put her big knee in her hands. The duck twisted the nest on the knee of the daughter of the air and carried seven eggs: six gold, the
My mother came out-the land is damp;
From the egg, from the upper part, A
tall vault of heaven rose,
From the yolk, from the upper part,
The bright sun appeared;
From the protein, from the top, the
Clear Month appeared;
From the egg, from the motley part, the
Stars have become in heaven;
From the egg, from the dark part,
Clouds appeared in the air.
And time goes by, the
Year runs forward after year,
When the sun is
shining, In the splendor of the month of the young.
Ilmatar, the mother of waters, the creature of the virgin sailed the sea for another nine years. On the tenth summer, she began to change the earth: she raised her head with the movement of her hand; where it touched the bottom of the foot, there stretched the depths, where it lay sideways – there appeared an even bank, where it bent its head – bays formed. And the earth took its present shape.
But the fruit of Ilmatar – the prophetic singer Väinämainen – was not born. For thirty years he wandered in the belly of his mother. Finally he prayed to the sun, the moon and the stars so that they would give
He touched the fortress gate,
Moved his finger nameless,
Bonesky Castle he opened the
Small finger of his left leg;
On his hands creeps from the threshold,
On his knees through the passage.
In the sea of blue he fell, He
grabbed the waves.
Vain was born as an adult and spent eight more years at sea until finally he got out on land.
Väinämainen lived for many years on a bare, treeless land. Then he decided to equip the edge. He called Väinämainen Samps Pellerwoinen – a boy-sower. Samps sowed the ground with grass, bushes and trees. The earth was dressed with flowers and greens, but only one oak could not ascend.
Four maidens came out of the sea to the shore. They mowed grass and collected it in a big haystack. Then the monster-hero Tursas rose from the sea and set fire to the hay. Väinämainen put the acorn in the ash formed and a huge oak grew from the acorn, shielding the sky and the sun with the crown.
Wain thought, who could have cut down this giant tree, but such a hero could not be found. He begged his mother that she sent him someone to dump the oak tree. And then came out of the water dwarf, grew into a giant, and from the third swing cut down a wonderful oak tree. Who raised his branch – he found happiness forever, who top – became a sorcerer, who cut his leaves – became cheerful and joyful. One of the splinters of a wonderful oak swam into Pohjela. The girl Pohjela took it herself so that the sorcerer made arrows from her.
The earth blossomed, birds fluttered in the forest, but only barley did not rise, grain did not ripen. Väinämainen went to the blue sea and found six grains at the water’s edge. He picked up the grains and sowed them near the Kalevala River. Titmouse told the songwriter that the grains will not rise, as the land has not been cleared for plowing. Väinämainen cleared the ground, cut down the forest, but left in the middle of the field a birch so that the birds could rest on it. Eagle praised Vainamoinen for his care and, in return, delivered fire to the cleared area. Vaina sowed the field, praying to the earth, Ukko, to take care of the ears, about the harvest. There were shoots on the field, and barley ripened.
Väinämainen lived in Kalevala, showing the world his wisdom, and sang songs about deeds of the past, about the origin of things. The rumor spread the news of the wisdom and strength of Vainamoinen. These messages were heard by Eukahainen, a resident of Pohjela. Envied Eukahainen glory Vainamoinen and, despite the persuasion of his parents, went to Kalevala, in order to confound the songwriter. On the third day of the journey, Eukahainen collided on the road with Vainamoinen and challenged him to measure the strength of the songs and the depth of knowledge. Eukahainen began to sing about what he sees and what he knows. Väinämainen answered him:
The mind is childish, the woman’s wisdom
Is not decent bearded
And married inappropriately.
Thou shalt say things beginning, the
depth of eternal works!
And then Eukahainen began to boast that it was he who created the sea, the earth, the luminaries. In response, the sage caught him in a lie. Eukahainen summoned Vaina to battle. The songwriter answered him with a song, from which the earth trembled, and Eukahainen plunged to the belt in the swamp. He begged for mercy, promised a ransom: the bows are wonderful, the boats are fast, horses, gold and silver, bread from their fields. But Vainamoinen did not agree. Then Eukahainen offered to marry his sister – the beautiful Aino. Väinämainen accepted this offer and released him. Eukahainen returned home and told his mother about what had happened. Mother was delighted that her son-in-law would be a wise Vainamoinen. And Sister Aino began to cry and grieve. She was sorry to leave her native land, to leave her freedom, to marry the old man.
Vainamoinen met Aino in the forest and proposed to her. Aino responded that she was not going to get married, and she herself returned home in tears and begged her mother not to give her to the old man. Mother persuaded Aino to stop crying, put on an elegant dress, decorations and wait for the groom. Daughter, grieving, put on a dress, jewelry and decided to commit suicide went to the sea. On the beach, she left her clothes and went swimming. Having reached the stone cliff, Aino wanted to rest on it, but the cliff with the girl collapsed into the sea, and she drowned. A quick hare brought sad news to Aino’s family. Mother mourned her dead daughter for days and nights.
The news of the death of Aino reached Väinämeinen. In a dream, the sorrowful Vainamoinen saw that place in the sea where mermaids live, and learned that his bride is among them. He went there and caught a wonderful fish, unlike any other. Väinämainen tried to cut this fish to make food, but the fish slipped out of the hands of the songwriter and told him that she was not a fish, but the maiden of the queen of the Vallamo and the king of the wilderness of Ahto, that she was the sister of Eukahainen, the young Aino. She emerged from the depths of the sea to become the wife of Vainamoinen, and he did not recognize her, took it for a fish and now lost forever. The pesonist begged Aino to return, but the fish had already disappeared in the abyss. Väinämainen threw the net into the sea and caught everything in it, but he did not catch that fish. By reproaching himself and scolding himself, Vainamoinen returned home. His mother, Ilmatar,
Väinämainen went to the gloomy Pohjela, the misty Sariola. But Eukahainen, hiding anger at Vainamoinen, envying his talent as a songwriter, decided to ruin the old man. He lurked on the road. After seeing the wise Vainamoinen, the evil poohner shot and on the third attempt he got into the horse. The singer fell into the sea, waves and wind blew him away from the earth. Eukahainen, thinking that he had killed Vainamoinen, returned home and boasted to his mother that he had beaten the elder Vaina. Mother condemned the unreasonable son for a bad deed.
Many days the singer sailed in the open sea, where he was met by a mighty eagle. Väinämainen described how he got into the sea and the eagle, in gratitude for leaving the birch in the field for resting birds, offered his help. The eagle delivered the songwriter to the shore Pohely. Väinämainen could not find his way home and wept bitterly, his mourning heard the maid and told Mrs. Louhi, the owner of Pohjela. Louhi found Vainamoinen, brought him to her house and greeted her as a guest. Väinämainen yearned for Kalevala and wanted to return home.
Louhi promised to marry Vainamoinen to his daughter and take him to Kalevala, in exchange for the fact that he was eating the wonderful Sampo mill. Väinämainen said that he can not bind Sampo, but upon his return to Kalevala he will send the most skilled blacksmith Ilmarinen, who will make her the coveted miracle mill.
After all, he forged the sky,
He tied the roof of the air,
So that there are no traces of fittings
And no traces of ticks are visible.
The old woman insisted that her daughter would be the only one who scraps Sampo. But still she collected Vainamoinen on the road, gave him a sleigh and punished the songwriter during the journey not to look at the sky, otherwise he would suffer an evil fate.
On the way home Vainaimainen heard a strange noise, like someone weaving in the sky, above his head.
The old man lifted his head
And looked then at the sky:
There is an arc in the sky,
On the arc a girl is sitting,
She is weaving golden clothes,
Silver decorates everything.
Väine proposed the girl to get off the rainbow, sit down in his sleigh and go to Kalevala to be his wife. Then the girl asked the songwriter to cut the hair with a blunt knife, tie an egg into the knot, sharpen the stone and cut out the ice from the ice, “so that the pieces do not fall off, so that the speck of dust does not fly off.” Only then will she sit in his sleigh. Väinämainen fulfilled all her requests. But then the girl asked to scoop out the boat “from the fragments of the spindle and put it on the water without pushing it with the knee.” Väine went to the boat. The ax, with the participation of the evil Hyishi, jumped off and plunged into the knee of a wise old man. Blood flowed from the wound. Vainamoinen tried to speak blood, heal the wound. The conspiracies did not help, the blood did not stop – the singer could not remember the birth of iron. And Vainamoinen began to look for someone who could speak a deep wound.
The old man said that he knows the cure for such wounds, but does not remember about the beginning of iron, about his birth. But Vainamoinen himself remembered this story and told her:
Air is the mother of everything, the
Big Brother is called water,
The younger brother of water is iron, The
middle brother is a hot fire.
Ukko, the creator of the Supreme, the
Elder Ukko, the heavenly God,
separated the water from the sky,
He divided the water with the land;
It was not born only iron,
It was not born, did not rise…
Then Ukco rubbed his hands, and on his left knee three maidens appeared. They went through the sky, milk flowed from their chest. From the black milk of the eldest girl came soft iron, from the white middle steel, from the red junior – weak iron. Born iron wanted to see his older brother – fire. But the fire wanted to burn the iron. Then it fled in fear into the swamps and hid under water.
In the meantime, the smith Ilmarinen was born. At night he was born, and in the daytime he built a smithy. The blacksmith was attracted by traces of iron on animal paths, he wanted to put it in the fire. Iron was afraid, but Ilmarinen reassured him, promised a wonderful transformation into different things and threw him into the crucible. The iron asked to remove it from the fire. The smith replied that then iron could become ruthless and attack a person. Iron swore a terrible oath that never encroach on a man. Ilmarinen pulled iron from the fire and forged various things from it.
To make the iron strong, the smith prepared a composition for quenching and asked the bee to bring honey to add it to the composition. His request was heard and hornet, he flew to his master, the evil Hyishi. Hyishi gave the hornets a poison, which he brought instead of a bee to Ilmarinen. Blacksmith, not knowing treason, added poison to the composition and hardened iron in it. Iron came out of the fire evil, threw all the oaths and attacked people.
The old man, hearing the story of Vainamoinen, said that he now knows the beginning of the iron, and proceeded to incantation of the wound. Encouraging Ukko, he prepared a wonderful ointment and cured Vainamoinen.
Väinämainen returned home, at the Kalevala border, cursed Eukahainen, because of which he got to Pohjela and was forced to promise the blacksmith Ilmarinen to the old woman Louhi. On the way, he created a wonderful pine tree with a constellation at the top. At home, the singer began to persuade Ilmarinen to go to Pohjela for a beautiful wife who will be given to someone who will forge Sampo. Kotel asked why he persuaded him to go to Pohjela to save himself, and categorically refused to go. Then Vainaimainen told Ilmarinen about a wonderful pine in a clearing and offered to go and see this pine, to remove the constellation from the top. The blacksmith ingratitudinously climbed a tree, and Vainamoinen caused the wind to force the song and transferred Ilmarinen to Pohjela.
Louhi met the blacksmith, introduced her daughter, and asked to bind Sampo. Ilmarinen agreed and began to work. Ilmarinen worked for four days, but other things came out of the fire: onions, a shuttle, a cow, a plow. All of them had a “bad quality”, all were “evil”, so Ilmarinen broke them and threw them back into the fire. Only on the seventh day did the miraculous Sampo come out of the flames of the furnace, a variegated cover swirled.
The old woman Louhi rejoiced, carried Sampo to the mountain Pohely and buried it there. In the land, a wonderful mill had three deep roots. Ilmarinen asked to give him the beautiful Pohyela, but the girl refused to go for the blacksmith. The sad man returned home and told Väine that Sampo was forged.
Lemminkäinen, the hilarious hunter, the hero of Kalevala, is all good, but he has one drawback – very pall of feminine charms. Lemminkainen heard about the beautiful girl who lived in Saari. The obstinate girl did not want to marry anyone. Hunter decided to achieve it. Mother discouraged her son from a rash act, but he did not obey and went on the road.
At first, the girls Saari mocked the poor hunter. But eventually Lemminkäinen conquered all the girls of Saari, except for one – Küllikki – the one for which he went on the road. Then the hunter kidnapped Kullikki to take her as his wife to his poor house. Taking away the girl, the hero threatened: if the girls of Saari tell who took away Kullikki, he will strike a war and exterminate all their husbands and boys. Küllikki initially resisted, but then agreed to become the wife of Lemminkäinen and took from him an oath that he would never go to war against her native land. Lemminkäinen swore and took a reciprocal vow from Küllikki that she would never go to her village and dance with the girls.
Lemminkäinen lived happily with his wife. Somehow the hilarious hunter went fishing and stayed, and in the meantime, without waiting for her husband, Küllikki went to the village to dance with the girls. Sister Lemminkainen told his brother about the deed of his wife. Lemminkäinen got angry, decided to quit Küllikki and go to get married to the girl Pohjela. Mother frightened the brave hunter with magicians of the gloomy edge, said that there was waiting for his death. But Lemminkäinen replied with self-assurance that the wizards of Pohjela were not afraid of him. Brushing his hair, he threw it on the floor with the words:
“Only then will evil evil
If the blood from the brush splashes,
If the red will drown.”
Lemminkäinen set off on a clearing, he raised the prayer of Ukko, Ilmatar and the gods of the forest to help him on a dangerous journey.
Nealaskovo met the hunter in Pohjela. In the village of Louhi, the hunter entered a house full of sorcerers and magicians. With his songs he swore all the men of Pohjela, deprived them of their strength and magical gift. He swore all of them, except for the lame old shepherd. When the shepherd asked the hero why he had spared him, Lemminkäinen replied that he had spared him only because the old man was already so pathetic, without any spells. The spiteful shepherd did not forgive Lemminkäinen and decided to watch the hunter at the waters of the gloomy river Tuoneola – the river of the underworld, the river of the dead.
Lemminkäinen asked the old woman Louhi to hand over her beautiful daughter for him. In response to the reproach of the old woman that he already has a wife, Lemminkäinen stated that he would ban Küllikki. Louhi set the hunter the condition that he would give the daughter if the hero catches the elk Khiishi. The merry hunter said that he would easily catch the moose, but it was not so easy to find and catch him.
Lemminkäinen asked Ukko to help him in catching an elk. He also called the forest king Tapio, his son Nyurikki and the forest queen Mielikki. The spirits of the forest helped the hunter to catch the moose. Lemminkäinen brought the moose to the old woman Louhi, but she set a new condition: the hero must lead her to the stallion Hyishi. Lemminkäinen again asked for help from Ukko the Thunderer. Ukko with an iron hail drove the stallion to the hunter. But the mistress of Pohjela set a third condition: to shoot the swan of Tuoneola – the river in the underworld of the dead. The hero descended to Manala, where a treacherous shepherd was already waiting for him at the gloomy river. The spiteful old man snatched a snake out of the waters of the gloomy river and pierced Lemminkainen like a spear. A hunter poisoned with snake venom dies. A poholets cut the body of poor Lemminkainen into five pieces and threw them into the waters of Tuoneola.
At Lemminkainen’s home, blood began to ooze out of the left brush. Mother realized that a misfortune had happened to her son. She went to Pohjela for news of him. The old lady Louhi, after persistent questioning and threats, admitted that Lemminkäinen went for a swan to Tuoneul. Having gone in search of her son, the poor mother asked the oak, the road, for a month, where the merry Lemminkainen disappeared, but they did not want to help. Only the sun showed her the place of her son’s death. The unfortunate old woman turned to Ilmarinen with a request to clip a huge rake. The sun put to sleep all the warriors of the gloomy Tuonela, and meanwhile Lemminkainen’s mother began to search for the rake in the black waters of Manala the body of her beloved son. With incredible efforts, she caught the remains of the hero, joined them and turned to the bee with a request to bring some honey from the divine palaces. With this honey she smeared the body of the hunter. The hero came to life and told his mother how he was killed. Mother persuaded Lemminkainen to abandon the idea of Louha’s daughter and take him home to Kalevala.
Väinämainen conceived the idea of making a boat and sent Samps Pellerwoinen behind a tree. Aspen and pine were not suitable for construction, but a mighty oak, nine sazhens in girth, was quite handy. Väinämainen “builds a boat with a wedge, he takes a canoe with a stump from the pieces of a large oak.” But three words were not enough for him to lower the boat to the water. The wise peson went to search for these treasured words, but could not find them anywhere. In search of these words, he descended into the realm of Manala
There the singer saw the daughter of Mana, who was sitting on the river bank. Väinämainen asked to give him a boat to cross to the other side and enter the realm of the dead. The daughter of Mana asked why he descended into their realm alive and unharmed.
Väinämainen long evaded the answer, but, in the end, admitted that he was looking for magic words for the boat. The daughter of Mana warned the songwriter that few return from their land, and forwarded to the other side. There he was met by the mistress of Tuoneela and held up a mug of dead beer. Väinämainen refused the beer and asked him to reveal three words to him. The hostess said she did not know them, but still Vainamoinen could never again leave the realm of Mana. She plunged the hero into a deep sleep. In the meantime, the inhabitants of the gloomy Tuonela have prepared obstacles that should deter the songwriter. However, the wise Vaina went around all the traps set and climbed to the upper world. Pesnopevets appealed to God with a request not to allow anyone to voluntarily descend into the gloomy Manala and told how hard life for evil people in the realm of the dead, what they expect punishments.
Väinämainen went to the giant Vipunen for magic words. He found Vipunen ingrown into a land covered with forest. Väinämainen tried to wake the giant, to open his huge mouth, but Vipunen accidentally swallowed the hero. The songwriter arranged a forge in the womb of the giant and woke Vipunen with a thunder of a hammer and heat. Tormented by pain, the giant ordered the hero to get out of the womb, but Vainamoinen refused to leave the body of the giant and promised to hammer harder:
If I do not hear the words, I do
not recognize spells,
I will not remember the good ones here.
No words should hide,
No parables should be hidden,
Should not be buried in the ground
And after the death of the sorcerers.
Vipunen sang the song “about things of origin.” Vainamoinen got out of the belly of the giant and completed his boat.
Väinämainen decided on a new boat to go to Pohjela and take his wife Louhi. Ilmarinen’s sister, Annika, went out in the morning to wash, saw the boat of the songwriter, who adhered to the shore and asked the hero where he was going. Väinämainen confessed that he was going to the gloomy Pohjela, the misty Sariola, to marry the beautiful woman of the North. Annikki ran home, told her brother, blacksmith Ilmarinen. The cauldron was saddened and began to gather in a way not to miss his bride.
So they went: Väinämainen by sea on a wonderful boat, Ilmarinen – overland, on horseback. After a while the blacksmith caught up with Vainamoinen, and they agreed not to force the beautiful woman to marry. Let him be happy who she chooses for herself as her husband. The less fortunate one does not get angry. The grooms arrived at the house of Louhi. Mistress Sariola advised her daughter to choose Vainamoinen, but she liked the young blacksmith more. Väinämainen went to Louhi’s house, and the beautiful Pohyela refused him.
Ilmarinen asked Louhi about his fiancée. Louhi said that she would give her daughter for a blacksmith if he plowed the snake field of Hyishi. The daughter of Louhi gave advice to the smith how to plow this field, and the smith coped with this task. The evil old woman set a new condition: to catch a bear in Tuonele, to catch the gray-haired wolf of Manala. The bride again gave the blacksmith advice, and he caught a bear and a wolf. But the mistress of Pohjaly again became obstinate: the wedding will be after the blacksmith in the waters of Manala catches the pike. The bride advised the blacksmith to clamp the eagle, which will catch this fish. Ilmarinen did the same, but on the way back the iron eagle ate the pike, leaving only his head. This head as proof was brought by Ilmarinen to the owner of Pohely. Louhi resigned, gave the daughter to the wife of the blacksmith. A saddened Vainamoinen went home,
In Pohjela, a wedding feast is being prepared. In order to prepare a treat, you need to fry the whole bull. Chased the bull: the horns are 100 fathoms, the squirrel rises from head to tail for a month, and there was not such a hero who could kill him. But the hero came up from the sea with an iron fist and killed a huge bull with one blow.
The old woman Louhi did not know how to make beer for the wedding. The old man on the stove told Louhi about the birth of hops, barley, the first creation of Osmotar beer, the daughter of Kaleva. Learning about how to brew beer hostess Sariola began its preparation. Forests have thinned out: they cut wood for cooking, the springs dried up: they collected water for beer, the smoke filled Polk-Pohely.
Louhi sent messengers to invite everyone to a magnificent wedding, all but Lemminkainen. If Lemminkainen comes, then he will start a fight, the old men and girls will laugh at the banquet.
Louhi met the guests. She ordered the slave to take the son-in-law better, give him special honors. The guests sat down at the table, began to eat, drink frothy beer. Old Väinämainen picked up his mug and asked the guests if somebody would sing a song “so that our day would be fun so that the evening would be glorified?” But no one dared to sing with the wise Vainamoinen, then he himself began to sing, glorifying the young, wishing them a happy life.
The bride is preparing to leave. They sang her songs about her girlish life and about the unsweetened life of his wife in a strange house. The bride began to cry bitterly, but she was comforted.
The bride is taught and gives advice on how she should live married. The old beggar told her about her life, how she was a girl, how she was married and how she left her wicked husband.
The bridegroom reads instructions, how he should deal with the bride, do not order to treat her badly. The beggarly old man told how he once formed his wife.
The bride said goodbye to everyone. Ilmarinen put the bride in a sleigh, set out on his way and arrived home on the third day in the evening.
Ilmarinen’s home with his wife was met by the mother of the blacksmith Locke, spoke kindly to her daughter-in-law, and praised her in every possible way. The newlyweds and guests were seated at the table, and they were given plenty of food. Väinämainen praised his native land, his men and women, his master and mistress, his matchmaker and the girlfriend of the bride, guests. After the wedding feast the songwriter went home. On his way, his sleigh broke, and the hero asked the locals if there was such a daredevil who would go down to Tuonela for a bumpkin to fix his sleigh. He was told that there was no such thing. Väinämainen himself had to descend to Tunel himself, after which he repaired the sleigh and safely got home.
In the meantime, Lemminkainen learned that they were celebrating a wedding in Pohjela, and decided to go there, to avenge the insult. Mother discouraged him from such a risky venture, but the hunter remained adamant. Then the mother told of the dangers that lie in wait for Lemminkäinen on his way to Pohjela, reproached that his son had forgotten early on how he had once died in that province of sorcerers. Lemminkäinen did not obey and went on the road.
On the road, Lemminkainen was met by the first death – a fiery eagle. The hunter escaped, having conjured a flock of hazel grouses. Then the hero met with the second death – a precipice filled with red-hot blocks. Hunter turned to the supreme god Ukko, and he sent a snowfall. Lemminkainen witchcraft erected an icy bridge across the abyss. Then Lemminkäinen met with the third death – a ferocious bear and a wolf, on which with the help of magic released a herd of sheep. At the very gates of Pohuela the hunter met a huge snake. The hero enchanted her, uttering magic words and remembering the first-born of the snake from the saliva of Xuetar through the witchcraft of Hyishi, and the snake freed the hunter’s way to Pohjela.
Passing all the dangers, the hilarious Lemminkäinen arrived in Pohjela, where he was greeted unheedfully. An angry hero began to scold the owner and mistress for having secretly celebrated the wedding of his daughter and now so hostilely meet him. The owner of Pohjela called Lemminkainen to compete in witchcraft and sorcery. The hunter won in the match, then the pooh-one called him to fight with swords. Lemminkäinen also won here, he killed the master Pohjela and cut off his head. Angry Louhi called armed soldiers to avenge the death of her husband.
Lemminkäinen hastily left Pohjela and flew home like an eagle. At home, he told his mother about what had happened in Sariol, that the soldiers of Louhi were going to war with him, and asked where he could hide and wait for the invasion. Mother reproached the violent hunter for having traveled to Pohjela, brought upon himself such a danger, and proposed to go to a small island for three years beyond the seas where his father used to live during the wars. But first she took a terrible oath from the hunter not to fight for ten years. Lemminkäinen swore.
Lemminkäinen went to a small island. The locals welcomed him. Witchcraft charmed the local girls with witchcrafts, seduced them and lived in the island for three years. Men of the island, angry at the frivolous behavior of the hunter, decided to kill him. Lemminkäinen learned of the plot and fled the island, about which the girls and women bitterly regretted.
A strong storm on the sea broke the hunter’s boat, and he was forced to swim to the shore. On the shore Lemminkainen obtained a new boat and sailed to its native shores. But there he saw that his house was burnt, the country was deserted and there was none of his kind. Lemminkäinen wept, began to reproach and scold himself for having gone to Pohjela, brought upon himself the anger of the pohjelts, and now all his family was killed, and his beloved mother was killed. Then the hero noticed a path leading to the forest. After walking along it, the hunter found a hut, and in it his old mother. Mother told about how the people of Pohjela ravaged their home. Hunter promised to build a new house, even better than before, and revenge Pohjele for all the misfortunes, told how he lived all these years on a distant island.
Lemminkäinen could not reconcile himself to having sworn an oath for ten years not to fight. Again he did not listen to the persuasion of his mother, again he went to war with Pochela and invited a faithful friend Tiera with him. Together they went on a campaign against the people of Sariola. The mistress of Pohuela sent a terrible frost on them, which froze Lemminkainen’s boat in the sea. However, the hunter cast out the frost with spells.
Lemminkäinen and his friend Thière left the shuttle in the ice, and on foot they reached the shore, where, sad and depressed, they wandered about in remote places until finally they returned home.
There lived two brothers: Untamo – the youngest, and Kalervo – the elder. Untamo did not like his brother, he built all sorts of intrigues. Between the brothers there was enmity. Untamo assembled the soldiers and killed Kalervo and his entire family, except for one pregnant woman, whom Untamo took with him as a slave. A woman was born to a woman who is called Kullervo. Back in the cradle the child promised to become a hero. The grown up Kullervo began to think about revenge.
Untamo, concerned about this, decided to get rid of the child. Kullervo was put in a barrel and thrown into the water, but the boy did not drown. He was found sitting on a barrel and fishing in the sea. Then the child decided to throw it into the fire, but the boy did not burn. Kullervo decided to hang on an oak tree, but on the third day he was found sitting on a bough and drawing warriors on the bark of a tree. Resigned Untamo and left the boy as his slave. When Kullervo grew up, he was given work: to nurse a child, cut down the forest, weave a wattle fence, thresh rye. But nothing is good for Kullervo, he ruined all the work: he tortured the child, chopped off a good battle wood, woven it to the sky without entering and leaving, and turned the grain into dust. Then Untamo decided to sell the worthless slave to the blacksmith Ilmarinen:
The smith gave the price a great price:
he gave two old
pots to the old ones, Rusty three iron hooks,
he gave the useless heels,
Six hoes of bad, unnecessary
For a bad boy,
For a slave very bad.
The wife of Ilmarinen, the daughter of old Louhi, appointed Kullervo a shepherd. And for laughter and for insult, the young mistress for the shepherd prepared a loaf: the top of wheat, the bottom of oats, and in the middle baked a stone. She handed this bread to Kullervo and told me that the shepherd would not eat it until he drove the herd into the forest. The hostess released a herd, put a spell on him, calling on Ukco’s helpers, Mielikki, Tellerwo and begging them to guard the herd; asked Otso – a bear, a beauty with a honeyed paw – not to touch the herd, to bypass it by side.
Kullervo herded a herd. In the afternoon the shepherd sat down to rest and eat. He took out the bread baked by the young housewife and began to cut it with a knife:
And the knife on the stone was
pinned on the blade with a knife in the neck;
At the knife the blade fell apart,
The pieces of the blade fell apart.
Kullervo was upset: this knife came to him from his father, this is the only memory of his kind, carved by Untamo. In a rage, Kullervo decided to take revenge on the mistress, Ilmarinen’s wife, for mockery. The shepherd drove the herd into the swamp and wild animals devoured all the cattle. Kullervo turned bears into cows, and wolves into calves and, under the guise of a herd, drove them home. On the way, he ordered them to tear the mistress to pieces: “She will look at you only to milk her, she will bend!”. The young mistress, seeing the herd, asked Ilmarinen’s mother to go and milk the cows, but Kullervo, reproaching her, said that the good housewife herself milked the cows. Then the wife of Ilmarinen went to the stable, and the bears and wolves tore it to shreds.
Kullervo escaped from the blacksmith’s house and decided to take revenge against Untamo for all the grievances, for the extortion of the clan of Kalervo. But in the forest the shepherd met an old woman who told him that Kalervo, his father, was actually alive. She suggested how it can be found. Kullervo went on a quest and found his family on the border of Lapland. Mother met her son with tears, told her that she considered him missing, as did her eldest daughter, gone for berries, but never returned.
Kullervo stayed in his parents’ house. But there was no use for his heroic strength. Everything the shepherd did was useless, spoiled. And then the sorry father sent Kullervo to the city, to pay the tax. On the way back Kullervo met the girl, lured gifts into his sleigh and seduced her. It turned out that this girl is the same missing sister Kullervo. In desperation the girl rushed into the river. A Kullervo in the mountain went home, told his mother about what had happened and decided to commit suicide. His mother forbade him to part with life, began to persuade to leave, find a quiet corner and quietly live there his age. Kullervo did not agree, he was going to take revenge on Untamo for everything.
Mother discouraged her son from accomplishing an ill-considered act. Kullervo was adamant, especially since all his relatives cursed him. One mother was not indifferent to what would happen to her son. While Kullervo was at war, he heard news of the death of his father, brother and sister, but he did not cry over them. Only when the news of the death of the mother came, the shepherd cried. Arriving in the genus of Untamo, Kullervo destroyed both women and men, ruining their homes. Returning to his land, Kullervo did not find any of his relatives, all died and the house was empty. Then the unfortunate shepherd went into the forest and parted with life, rushing to the sword.
At this time the blacksmith Ilmarinen mourned his dead mistress and decided to shackle his new wife. With great difficulty he forged a virgin of gold and silver:
He forged, not slept, at night,
Day forged without stopping.
Legs have made her hands,
But the leg can not go,
And the hand does not hug.
He tosses the girl’s ears,
But they can not hear.
He mouth skillfully made
And eyes to her like living,
But mouth without words left
And eyes without shine feeling.
When the smith lay down with his new wife in bed, that side, with which he touched the statue, completely frozen. Convinced of the unsuitability of his golden wife, Ilmarinen offered her to his wife Vainamoinen. The pesonist refused and advised the blacksmith to throw the precious girl into the fire and to nibble a lot of necessary things from gold and silver, or take her to other countries and give the gold-stricken bridegrooms. To future generations Väinämäinen forbade to bow to gold in future.
Ilmarinen went to Pohjela to ask for the sister of his former wife, but in response to his proposal he heard only abuse and reproaches. An angry blacksmith kidnapped the girl. On the way the girl treated scornfully with the covet, humiliated him in every way. Enraged Ilmarinen turned the evil girl into a seagull.
The sad blacksmith returned home with nothing. In answer to questions Väinämainen told how he was driven away in Pohjela, and how the edge of Sariola is prosperous, because there is a magic mill of Sampo there.
Väinämainen suggested that Ilmarinen go to Pohjela, take Sampo’s mill from the owner of Sariola. The smith replied that it was very difficult to obtain Sampo, the evil Louhi hid her in a rock, holding a miracle mill three roots that grew into the ground. But the cook agreed to go to Pohjela, he forged a wonderful fireblade for Vainamoinen. Gathering on the road, Vainamoinen heard a cry. It was a boat crying, bored by deeds. Väinämainen promised the boat to take her on a trip. With incantations, the singer lowered the shuttle to the water, Väinämänen himself, Ilmarinen, their squad, and sailed into Sariola. Driving past the home of the hilarious hunter Lemminkainen, the heroes took him by themselves and together went to rescue Sampo from the hands of the evil Louhi.
The boat with the heroes swam to a lonely cape. Lemminkäinen swore river streams so that they did not break the boat, did not hurt the soldiers. He turned to Ukko, Kivi-Kimmo, the son of Kammo, Melatar, with a request not to harm their canoes. Suddenly, the hero’s boat stopped, no effort could move it from its place. It turned out that the canoe was held by a huge pike. Väinämainen, Ilmarinen and the squad caught a wonderful pike and went on. On the way, the fish was cooked and ate. From the bones of the fish Vainaymeinen made himself a kantele – a musical instrument of the genus gusli. But there was not a real craftsman on the ground playing the kantele.
Väinämainen began to play on the kantele. Daughters of creation, the maidens of the air, the daughter of the Moon and the Sun, Ahto, the mistress of the sea, gathered to listen to his wonderful game. Tears appeared in the eyes of the hearers and Väinämainen himself, his tears fell into the sea and turned into blue pearls of fairy beauty.
The heroes arrived in Pohjela. The old lady Louhi asked why the heroes had come to this region. The heroes replied that they had come for Sampo. They suggested dividing the miracle mill. Louhi refused. Then Vainamoinen warned that if the people of Kalevala do not receive half, then they will take everything by force. Mistress Pohjela called all her soldiers against the heroes of Kalevala. But the prophetic pesnopevets took the kantele, began to play on it and with his play enchanted the pohjeltsi, plunged them into a dream.
The heroes went in search of the mill and found it in the rock behind the iron doors with nine locks and ten bolts. Väinämäinen opened the gate with spells. Ilmarinen smeared the loops with oil so that the gate did not creak. However, even the braggart Lemminkäinen could not raise Sampo. Only with the help of a bull the Kalevalians managed to swallow the roots of Sampo and transfer it to the ship.
The heroes decided to transport the mill to a distant island “unscathed and calm and sword not visited.” On the way home, Lemminkainen wanted to sing in order to pass the way. Väinämainen warned him that it was not the time to sing now. Lemminkäinen, not listening to wise advice, began to sing in a bad voice, and the crane woke with loud sounds. The crane, frightened by the terrible singing, flew to the North and woke up the inhabitants of Pohela.
Finding the loss of Sampo, the old woman Louhi was very angry. She guessed who had stolen her treasure, and where he was being taken. She asked Udutar to send fog and mist to the abductors, the monster Iku-Turso – to drown the Kaleval people in the sea, to return Sampo to Pohjela, Ukko she asked to raise a storm to hold their boat until she herself overtook them and took her precious. Väinämainen got rid of the fog by magic, by the curse from Iku-Thurso, but the storm that raged carried away the wonderful kantele from the pike bones. Väinämainen grieved for the loss.
Evil Louhi sent Pohely’s soldiers after Sampo’s abductors. When the ship of pohyoltsev overtook the fugitives, Vainamoinen took a piece of flint from the bag and threw it into the water with spells, where it turned into a rock. Boat Pohjela crashed, but Louhi turned into a terrible bird:
Old heels of heels bring,
Six hoes, long unnecessary:
They serve it like fingers,
They like a handful of claws,
Compresses, In an instant half the boat picked up:
Tied under the knee;
And the sides to the shoulders, like wings, The
rudder, like a tail, put on itself;
A hundred husbands on the wings sat down,
Thousand on the tail sat, A
hundred horsemen sat down, A
thousand archers brave.
Lohy’s wings spread,
She rose to the air.
At the height of wings waving
Beats one wing in a cloud,
On the water another drags.
Mother of water, Ilmatar, warned Vainamoinen about approaching a monstrous bird. When Louhi caught up with the boat of the Kaleval people, the wise singer again suggested that the sorceress should divide Sampo fairly. The hostess Pohjela again refused, grabbed the mill with claws and tried to pull her off the boat. The heroes attacked Louhi, trying to stop him. However, with one finger, the Louhi-bird still clung to the miraculous mill, but could not hold it, dropped it into the sea and smashed it.
Large fragments of the mill drowned in the sea, and therefore in the sea there are so many riches that will not be transferred forever. Small fragments flowed with waves and waves nailed to the shore. Väinämainen collected these fragments and planted them in Kalevala land, so that the region was rich.
And the wicked mistress of Pohjela, who only got a variegated cover from a miracle mill, began to threaten to steal the sun and month in revenge, hide them in the rock, freeze all the sprouts, beat the hail crops, send the bear out of the forest to the herds of Kalevala, . However, Vainamoinen replied that with the help of Ukko, her evil spells would take her from her land.
Vainamoinen went to the sea to look for a kantele from pike bones, but despite all the efforts he did not find it. Sadly Vaine returned home and heard the birch in the forest crying. Birch complained about how hard it was for her: in the spring her bark was cut to get juice, the girls knit brooms from her branches, the shepherd weaves her bark and sheath from her bark. Väinämainen comforted the birch and made from it kantele, better than the former. Nails and pegs for kantele pesenopevets made from singing cuckoo, strings – from the delicate hair of a girl. When the kantele was ready, Vaina began to play, and the whole world listened to his play with admiration.
Louhi, to whom the rumors about the prosperity of Kalevala reached, envied her well-being and decided to send to the people of the Kalev Sea. At this time the pregnant Loviatar came to Louhi. Louhi accepted Loviat and helped to be born. Loviatar was born 9 sons – all the diseases and misfortunes. The old woman Louhi sent them to the people of Kaleva. However, Vainamoinen spells and ointments saved his people from illness and death.
The old woman Louhi learned that Kalevala was cured of the diseases she had caused. Then she decided to set the bear on herds of Kaleva. Väinämäinen asked the Ilmarinen coder to tie up the spear and went hunting for the bear – Otso, a forest apple, beauty with a honey paw.
Väinämainen sang a song in which he asked the bear to hide his claws and not threaten him, convinced the bear that he did not kill him – the bear fell from the tree and tore off his clothes and told the beast as though inviting him to visit.
In the village, on the occasion of a successful hunt, a feast was held, and Vaine told how the gods and goddesses of the forest helped him in the hunt for the bear.
Väinämainen played on the kantele. The sun and the month, after hearing a wonderful game, descended lower. The old woman Louhi grabbed them, hid them in the rock and stole fire from the fires of Kaleva. The cold, hopeless night fell on Kalevala. Even in the sky, in Ukko’s dwelling, there was darkness. People began to get tired, Ukko became worried, left his house, but could not find the sun or the moon. Then Thunderer carved a spark, hid it in a pouch, and a pouch in the box and gave this box to an air maiden, “so that a new month may grow, the sun is new”. The Virgin began cradling the heavenly fire in the cradle, nurse him in his arms. Suddenly the fire fell out of the hands of the nurse, flew nine heavens and fell to the ground.
Väinämainen, seeing the fall of the spark, said to the foreman Ilmarinen: “Let’s see what kind of fire fell to the ground!”, And the heroes set out to search for the heavenly fire. On the way they met Ilmatar, and she told that on earth the heavenly fire, Ukko’s spark, burns everything in its path. She burned the house of Turi, burned fields, swamps, and then fell into the lake Aluet. But even in the lake the heavenly fire did not go out. The lake was boiling for a long time, and the lake fish began to think how to get rid of the evil fire. Then the whitefish absorbed Ukko’s spark. The lake calmed down, but the whitefish began to suffer from pain. Pestrushka felt sorry for the whitefish and swallowed it with a spark, and also began to suffer from unbearable burning. The gray pike swallowed the pestle, and the fever started pestering her too. Väinämainen and Ilmarinen came to the shore of Lake Aluet and threw nets to catch a gray pike. They were helped by the women of Kalevala, but there is no gray pike in the networks. The second time the networks were abandoned, now they were helped by men, but the gray pike in the networks was not there again.
Väinämainen weaved a giant net out of flax. Together with Ilmarinen with the help of Vellamo and Ahto, who sent the sea bogatyr, they finally catch a gray pike. The son of the sun, helping heroes, cut the pike and drew a spark out of it. But the spark slipped out of the hands of the son of the Sun, burned Vaynanyaynen’s beard, burned the hands and cheeks of the blacksmith Ilmarinen, ran through the woods and fields, burned the floor-Pohely. However, the songwriter caught fire, enchanted it and brought it to Kaleva’s dwellings. Ilmarinen suffered from burns of magic fire, but, knowing the incantations against burns, healed himself.
There was already a fire in the houses of Kaleva, but there was no sun and a month in the sky. Residents asked Ilmarinen to forge new luminaries. Ilmarinen started to work, but the wise pesonopist tells him that:
You’ve done a miserable job!
Gold will not be a month,
Silver will not be the sun!
Despite this, Ilmarinen continued his work, he raised new sun and a month to tall fir trees. But precious lights did not shine. Then Vainamoinen began to find out where the real sun and moon had gone, and found out that they had stolen the old woman Louhi. Väine went to Pohjela, where its inhabitants met him disrespectfully. Pesnopevets entered with the men of Sariola into battle and won. He wanted to see the heavenly bodies, but the heavy doors of the dungeon did not succumb. Vain returned home and asked the Ilmarinen’s forts to forge weapons that could have opened the rock. Ilmarinen started to work.
Meanwhile, the owner of Pohjela, turning into a hawk, flew to Kaleva, to the house of Ilmarinen, and learned that the heroes were preparing for war, that she was in for an evil fate. In fear, she returned to Sariola and released the sun and the month from the dungeon. Then, in the image of a dove, she told the blacksmith that she was again in her place. The smith, rejoicing, showed Vainamoinen the light. Väinämainen greeted them and wished them always to decorate the sky and bring happiness to people.
The girl Marjatta, the daughter of one of husbands of Kalevala, has become pregnant from the eaten berries-cowberries. Mother and father drove her out of the house. The servant of Marjatta went to the evil man Ruotus, asking him to shelter the poor girl. Ruotus and his evil wife settled Marjatta in the stable. In that crib, Maryatta gave birth to a son. Suddenly the boy disappeared. The poor mother went in search of her son. She asked the star and the month for her son, but they did not answer her. Then she turned to the Sun, and the Sun said that her son was bogged down in the swamp. Marjatta saved her son and brought him home.
The villagers wanted to christen the boy and called the elder Virokannas. Vainaymeinen also came. Pesnopevets suggested killing a child born of a berry. The child began to reproach the elder for an unjust sentence, recalled his own sins. Virokannas christened the baby King of Karjaly. The angry Vainamoinen created a copper canopy for himself by magic song and for ever left Kalevala “to where the earth and sky come together”.
List of proper names
Note. In Finnish, stress falls on the first syllable.
Aino, sister of Eukahainen, the bride of Väinämainen, the deceased in the sea Aluete Lake, in which the spark of Ukko Annikki fell, Ilmarinen’s sister Ahto the sea king Vellamo the sea queen Vipunen the giant, the best connoisseur who swallowed Vainamoinen Virokannas the elder, invited for the baptism of the son of Marjatta, conceived from the berryberry Väinämainen, the main hero of Kalevala, son of Ilmatar, prophetic pesnopevets Eukahainen boastful pohjelets, rival Väinämainen in singing Iku-Turso Tursas – sea monster Ilmarinen the main hero of the epic, a wonderful blacksmith, with Saimo Ilmatar, the daughter of the air, the mother of Vainamoinen, who changed the appearance of the land of Kalev, the ancestor of the heroes of the epic Kalevala, the country of Kaleva Kalervo, the father of Kullervo, the elder brother of Untamo, the demon of his kin Kalma deity of death Kammo deity horror Karjala Karelia Keitolainen evil spirit Kivi-Kimmo deity of the pitfalls Kullervo son Kalevo, slave Untamo, youth with a tragic destiny Külicikki wife Lemminkäinen Lemminkäinen one of the main heroes of the epic, hilarious hunter Lempo another name Hejsi Loviatar goddess, mother of diseases Louhi hostess Pohely, evil old woman-sorceress Mana deity of the underworld Manala underground world, land of the dead Marjatta girl from Kalevala, conceived from the berry-cranberries Melatar the goddess of stormy currents M tsola another name Tapiola, the kingdom of forests Mielikki queen of the forest Nyurikki son of the king of the forest Osmotar daughter Osmo welded for the first time beer Otso nickname Bear Pan god of fire Pellervoynen another name Sampsa boy who helped sow the ground Vyaynyameynenu Pimentola another name Pohjola, country of darkness Piru the evil spirit Pohela the country of the north, the possession of the old woman Louhi, the land of the sorcerers Ruotus the evil man who found the shelter of Marjatta Saari the region in the North, the birthplace of Küllikki Sampo the miraculous mill, bound by Ilmarinen, the lust of the old woman Louhi Samps the boy, Väinämein’s assistant in the sowing of Sariola another name Pohjola Suomi Finland Swanetar deity Suetar evil water creature, mother of snakes Tapio forest king Tapiola country Tapio, king of the forest Tellerwo daughter Tapio, forest maiden Terhenetar maid of the mist Tiera friend Lemminka yenena, with which he went on a trip to Pohjela Tuliki daughter Tapio, the forest maid of Tuonela country Tuioni, the underworld, the land of the dead Tuonetar the mistress of the underworld Tuioni another name of the Mana, the deities of the underworld Tursas Iku-Turso – the sea monster Udutar deva fog Ukko the supreme god sky,