Deserts and semi-deserts of Eurasia

In the most remote from the oceans parts of Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, where precipitation is a rarity, a zone of deserts and semideserts stretches. It lies in the continental climatic regions of temperate, subtropical and tropical belts.

The largest deserts of the temperate zone are the Karakum, Kyzylkum, Takla-Makan and Gobi. Here, poor gray-brown soils were formed. Often they are saline. Vegetation is very rarefied: only those plants survive that have adapted to the harsh conditions of life – waterlessness, salinization of soils, and sharp temperature changes. Many plants of deserts have long and branched roots, instead of foliage spines. Typical plants of the desert temperate zone – kurai, solyanka, wormwood, from shrubs – saxaul.

From the animals there are wild Przhevalsky horse, wild asses of the onagra, as well as saigas, gazelles, camels. Ungulates run long distances in search of water, small animals can be satisfied with the water

contained in the plants that they eat. There are many poisonous snakes: gyurza, efa, cobra.

Subtropical and tropical semi-deserts and deserts are a bit like the deserts of North America. The largest of them is Rub al-Khali in the Arabian Peninsula. Here there is very little precipitation, there are no constant watercourses, high average temperatures in summer. There are almost no mail. Vegetation is found mostly in dry river valleys or in relief depressions where pound waters are close to the surface. These are saltweed, wormwood, camel thorn, acacia in some places. In tropical deserts there are gazelles, hyenas, jackals, many reptiles, in subtropical ones, besides – desert cat, gazelle, kulan. The great damage to the vegetation is inflicted by locusts. In the high mountain deserts of Tibet live mountain bulls – yaks.

Human life in deserts is possible only in oases, where there is water. Here, a date palm is cultivated. On irrigated land along large rivers, agricultural plants are cultivated.

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Deserts and semi-deserts of Eurasia