The process of origin and formation of medieval states was long and difficult. Its origins come from the period of the disintegration of the tribal system among the Germanic tribes. In those days, the attributes of power – the crown and the scepter – were not yet there, so the chosen among the other warriors were distinguished by a unique spear. Their power was temporary, rarely – lifelong. As the bulk of the German tribes settled in the conquered territories of the Western Roman Empire, the authority of the king increased and acquired new features. Over time, it became hereditary, and the king himself turned into a king.
The process of the formation of the state during the early Middle Ages can best be traced to the example of the history of the Franks. The State of the Franks had an inherent German flavor, but at the same time it was influenced by Roman traditions. The royal power of the Franks was entrusted to the family of the Merovingians, who founded the
hereditary dynasty. The power of the king gradually increased. It was helped also by the church – the bearer of the idea of the divine origin of royal power.
The management system in the Frankish state was imperfect. Officials did not have clearly defined functions and performed any assignments of the ruler. The Frankish Kingdom of Merovingians did not have a capital, and therefore, an official residence. The concept of a permanent tax was not yet available. The king existed at the expense of the profits of his own confluence – the Domain.
To keep in touch with his subjects, collecting the necessary payments, the king and his entourage constantly traveled around their immense possessions. He decided the most important state affairs at feasts with local nobility.
The king also had cash receipts, because the Romance population traditionally continued to pay tax. In addition, in favor of the king, most of the profits came from various types of fines. All these treasures lay for years and the royal treasury and did not go into circulation; Together with the king traveled and caskets with
money and jewelry.
Medieval kingdoms suffered significant losses through unsettled borders. The king perceived his state as a private possession that obeys the traditional laws of inheritance: it is divided into as many parts as the direct heirs of the male left the ruler after death. This practice went so far that sometimes the kingdom of the Merovingians consisted of allotments scattered all over Gaul.
Frankish kings often acted arbitrarily. The only thing that could prevent them from such actions was the fear of God’s punishment. In 579, King Hilperik ordered the introduction of new burdensome taxes in the kingdom. This caused a wave of discontent among the people. For example, in Limoges, the rebels burned new taxation lists. The king was very cruel to them. Just at this time the children of the king fell ill, and one of his sons died. Queen Fredigonda was shocked, she saw in this the finger of God – the punishment for royal insatiability. “Now we are already losing sons, they are already being killed by the tears of the poor, the complaints of the widows, the groans of the orphans.. And it is not known for whom we accumulate wealth…”, the queen said, “I have to burn all the unfair tax lists…” The queen ordered to bring the lists taxes of the population of her city and threw them into the fire. ” What are you waiting for? You see what I’m doing? Do and you are the same, “she said to her husband.” If you already had to lose the children, then at least you can escape the hellfire. “
Fibula – a lavishly decorated metal clasp for clothes
Domain – the totality of the hereditary landed estates of the feudal lord in the countries of Western Europe, where his power was directly exercised.