Borrowed words in Russian

Since ancient times, the Russian people have entered into trade, cultural, political, military ties with the peoples of other countries, which led to borrowing in the Russian language. Gradually new structural language units began to be included in the number of commonly used ones. So, many foreign words in Russian ceased to be perceived as foreign speakers.

At different stages of Russia’s development, the vocabulary included language structures of various non-Slavic countries.

Thus, Greek borrowed words in Russian began to appear in the era of Slavic unity. Among them, such expressions as a cross, a chamber, a dish, a cauldron and others. New words appeared in the Russian language from 9th to 11th century in large numbers. The expressions from the religious field (angel, demon, anathema, kliros, icon and others), everyday expressions (bath, bed), scientific terms (history, mathematics, philosophy), plant names (cedar, beet, cypress), animals (crocodile ). In a later

period, the borrowed words in Russian were related to the branch of science and art (logic, idea, anapaest, analogy, etc.). Many Greek expressions penetrated French vocabulary.

Latin borrowed words in Russian played a significant role in enriching speech. In particular, this refers to the social, scientific, technical and political spheres of communication.

From the 16th to the 18th century Latin borrowed words in Russian came to a greater extent through Ukrainian and Polish. So, there were expressions of school, vacation, dean, exam and others. A large number of Latin words are the basis of international terms. Among them, for example, are expressions such as erudition, revolution, the proletariat, dictatorship.

Aboriginal lexicon is also rich in Turkic language structures. Most of all Tatar expressions, which is due to the prolonged Tatar-Mongol yoke. So, the Slavs began to use terms such as watermelon, arshin, caravan, money, treasury, fog, stocking and others.

Not very much in Russian lexicon borrowings from the Scandinavian languages ​​(Swedish or Norwegian). Most of them appeared

in the ancient period, during the establishment of early trade ties. At the same time, the language included not only trade terms, but also marine and everyday concepts. Thus, the names of own Oleg, Igor, simple concepts, for example, herring, mast, pood, slander and others appeared.

One of the most numerous groups of borrowings is Western European words. In connection with the implementation of reforms by Peter the Great in the 17th and 18th centuries, German and Romanic vocabulary had a great influence on the vocabulary of the country. So, there were German words from everyday, commercial, military speech: a workbench, jointer, bill, landscape, spinach, resort and others. Dutch origin for terms such as harbor, pennant, fleet, pilot, flag and others.

Until the 19th century, English naval concepts came into Russian: a bot, a midshipman and others. However, more words came in the 20th century. They were connected with the development of sports, social life, technology (basketball, trolley, meeting, cake, tunnel, leader, etc.).

Political, social and economic transformations in the Russian state contributed to the spread in the 20th century, in the 1990s, of English words in the American version of pronunciation. During this period, the borrowings concerned various spheres of life. So, there were technical terms (byte, computer, display), sports (fighter, overtime), commercial and financial (broker, leasing), socio-political (impeachment, rating), as well as concepts from the art world (thriller, remake).

Significantly allocated Italian borrowings from the musical (tenor, aria, sonata, carnival), household (vermicelli) spheres of life.

Some words are of Finnish origin (dumplings, walrus).

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Borrowed words in Russian