Avicenna was one of the most outstanding philosophers of the “golden age” of Islam.
Childhood and early years
Little is known about the early years of Avicenna’s life. About him we got only scanty information from the autobiographical work of his pupil Giugiani. And, since there is no other evidence, all the descriptions of Avicenna’s life are based on this autobiography.
According to her, Avicenna was born around 980 AD. e. in Afsan, a village not far from Bukhara, in the family Setareg and Abdullah. His mother was a native of Bukhara, while his father, a revered Ismailist scholar, came from Balkh in Afghanistan.
When Avicenna appeared in the family, his father was the manager in one of the estates of Mansur ibn Nukha from the Samanid
Greedy to the knowledge, Avicenna possessed an extraordinary intelligence and abilities to the sciences. By the age of ten, he knew the Koran by heart, and by fourteen he surpassed his teacher in elementary logic. The boy was looking for new knowledge, where and from whom he could only. To Indian arithmetic, he learns from a merchant Indian, and later deepens his knowledge of this subject with the help of a wandering philosopher.
After this, Avicenna assiduously engaged in self-education, reading the writings of Hellenistic authors. He also studies Islamic jurisprudence and the teachings of the Hanafi school. And it is at this time that he encounters difficulties in understanding Aristotle’s work on metaphysics. The young man teaches the work by heart, but the true meaning of it still remains misunderstood, until, one day, Avicenna comes to enlightenment.
At the age of sixteen, Avicenna focuses her efforts on medicine. This subject he studies not only theoretically, but also actively engaged in practice. He manages to discover new ways in the treatment of patients. According to him, medicine is much easier than metaphysics and mathematics.
In Bukhara with Avicenna there is an interesting case when he cures the attack of the Sultan, while this turned out to be beyond the power of all the court healers. Avicenna can easily cope with an unknown, but dangerous disease.
For his success in medicine and successful treatment of the emir, Avicenna is given access to the library of the Samanid dynasty. The library opens before him a door to the amazing world of sciences and philosophy, providing at its disposal the works of outstanding scientists and classics.
But this does not last long: the enemies of the dynasty burn the library to the ground, accusing Avitsenna of this tragic incident. Shaken by this behavior of their enemies, Avicenna leaves science and helps her father in the field of farming.
Write Avicenna begins at age 21. His numerous early works are devoted to questions of logic, ethics, metaphysics and so on. The proceedings were mainly written in Arabic and Persian.
After the death of his father and the fall of the Samanid dynasty in 1004, he was offered a position at the court of Mahmud of Ghazni. But Avicenna does not accept this offer, but instead goes west, to Urgench – a city on the territory of modern Turkmenistan.
There he works for a penny at the local vizier. But there is not enough money for life, and Avicenna moves from one place to another, from Nishapur to Merv and to the very borders of Khorasan.
After endless wanderings, he finally meets in Gordan, near the Caspian Sea, a friend who lets him into his house and offers to take disciples to teach them logic and astronomy. The most famous works of Avicenna will be written exactly in Gordan. One of the most important of his works, “The Canon of Medical Science”, is connected with this place.
This work consists of five volumes, each of which is devoted to individual subjects. Avicenna pays attention to everything from infectious diseases to venereal diseases. The first and second volumes of the book are devoted to physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth – to the treatment of diseases, and in the fifth volume describes the compositions and methods of preparation of medicines.
Having gained fame through his work, Avicenna finally settles in Rae, a city not far from modern Tehran. The nominal ruler of these places is Majd Addaula, the son of the last Amir of the Buvaikhid Dynasty, while in fact, his mother, Seyde Khatun, is in fact in charge of everything in the state.
Here Avicenna will finish about three dozen of his works. However, his stay in these places is coming to an end soon, due to a quarrel between Majd Addaula and Shams al-Daula.
Avicenna spent some time in Qazvin, but then goes south to Hamadan, ruled by Shams al-Daula. There he becomes a paramedic, having risen over time to the rank of vizier.
However, Avicenna disagrees with the local emir, and he gives the order to expel the disagreeable doctor from the province. Only after the epidemic that threatened the lives of many, Avicenna will be restored to the rights to treat others. Forty days of his exile the physician conducts in the house of Sheikh Ahmed Fasel.
After the death of the emir, Avicenna throws the post of vizier and disappears in the home of a local pharmacist, where she is accepted to write new works.
He sends a letter to Abu Yafar, the governor of the city of Isfahan, intending to serve the good of the locals. However, this request will turn into a serious war between the new emir of Hamadan and the rulers of Isfahan. Avicenna is imprisoned in the fortress.
After the war, Avicenna again returns to the service of the new emir of Hamadan, but soon, having changed his appearance, he escapes from the provinces.
Almost all of his remaining life, Avicenna will hold at the court of Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmansiyar, ruler of the Kakuid dynasty. He becomes his court physician, and takes up the post of chief adviser on literature and science during numerous military campaigns.
Last years Avitsenna devoted to the study of literature and philology. Throughout his life, Avicenna wrote numerous works on philosophy, science, medicine, astrology, astronomy: Kitab al-shif, Kitab al-najat, Reslafieb alakam al-nojum, Canon of Medical Science, and so on.
The last years of life and death
The last period of Avicenna’s life is overshadowed by a chronic illness, which becomes worse with years. His heart stopped in June 1037 in the holy month of Ramadan. At that time he was fifty-eight years old.
They buried Avicenna in the Iranian city of Hamadan.
This Persian philosopher, the representative of the “golden age” of Islam, wrote the book “The Canon of Medical Science.”