The artistic detail is an expressive detail in the work that carries a significant semantic and ideological and emotional load. A special role is played by the artistic detail in works of a small genre, where it is very difficult to use long descriptions. So, the details that do not immediately strike the eyes of small things bear a huge semantic load in the stories.
In the work of A. P. Chekhov, the story occupies a central place. “Brevity is the sister of talent,” the writer noted. And really, so far we are ecstatic about his small, but witty and fascinating stories. At the same time, to convey the profound meaning of the narrative, to masterfully reveal the situation, to reveal the characters’ characters, the writer is helped precisely by the detail.
One of the most striking, in my opinion, stories – “Chameleon” – is saturated with details. This is the story of the guard Ochumelov and the domestic dog. A complex and extremely
funny situation of “trial” reveals the peculiarities of Ochumelov, and even to many people, riches, adaptability, servility. Fearing to make the wrong decision, which touches the interests of high-ranking officials, Ochumelov many times changes his mind, then justifying, then blaming the dog. The hero is like a chameleon, which, depending on the situation, changes its color. The rapid change of feelings and thoughts Ochumelov emphasizes the detail – the overcoat. He then puts on, then removes it, because of the stress he throws “then in the heat, then in the cold.”
The detail plays a key role in revealing the image and in the story “The Man in a Case”. The main character is the teacher of the Greek language Belikov – a closed-minded, unsociable person who lives a “box” life. The image of the case, the case is intentionally emphasized by the author in the prototype of the hero: sunglasses in a case, an umbrella in a case, raised like a case, a collar and so on. Even the hero’s room is like a case in which he hides from the outside world. Modern life
is unpleasant for Belikov, he criticizes everything in every possible way and praises only the past, is boundlessly afraid and worried, “as though what did not happen.” The hero finds peace only when he finds himself in an eternal “box” – in a coffin. A. P. Chekhov ridicules a lifestyle like Belikov, and other residents of the city. After all, as the hero-narrator admitted, some time after the death of Belikov, the townspeople returned to life, which is not forbidden, but not allowed to the end. That is, in the author’s view, they are the same “people in a case,” limited, closed and not free. This idea of the writer helps to reveal, first of all, the artistic detail.
And of course, we can not fail to mention the story “Ionich”, in which criticism is aimed at “philistinism”. The bright details in the work emphasize how, under the pressure of the power of money and the emptiness of the environment
Society degrades people spiritually. This idea is revealed on the example of the main character – Dr. Startsev. At the beginning of the story we have a young, full of hopes and aspirations, a hero who wants to love, to benefit society. He works hard, wishing to help people, walks on foot, admiring the beauty of the landscape… But such a person falls into the midst of the inhabitants, where even the “most talented” family turns out to be worthless. He has no one to talk to, share his thoughts. Realizing that he will remain incomprehensible, Startsev is increasingly shielded from the city of S. The hero can not realize his abilities, to realize his dreams, he is disappointed and hard. At the end of the work he becomes “Ionych”. Now this is what the people call it. He no longer walks, but rushes through the city on a rich troika. The sick irritate Jonich, he is rude to them and impatient. The only entertainment in his life is to count “paper” at the end of the day and bring them to the bank. So the details emphasizing the material wealth of the hero convey at the same time his spiritual poverty.
Thus, in any story of Anton Chekhov we find bright, expressive details filled with deep meaning. Paying special attention to accuracy in the selection of descriptions, the writer was able to create so capacious and memorable images that many of them became a household name and did not lose their significance even today.