There was a man who was not afraid of the Meccan merchant class. It was Mohammed. He was born in Mecca around 570. Early orphaned. At the age of 25, I married a rich widow Khadija, who helped to lead the trade and who became his true companion for life. When Muhammad was about 40 years old, visions began to visit him in a dream. Dreaming of mysterious trees, the archangel Jebrail, who demanded from him to read some book and assured that Allah sends him to his messenger to the people. At first Muhammad was frightened, but gradually he got used to the idea that he was a divine prophet. He began to preach with an accessible and figurative language that there is only one god – Allah, that Allah is almighty and determined everything is known that He will punish sinners and reward the righteous.
VIII century. From the book of Ibn Ishaq, the oldest biographer of Muhammad, “The Life of a Messenger of God”
Muhammad said to them: “… I brought not what I brought, not to seek your riches, honor among you or authority over you, but Allah sent me to you as a messenger, gave me a book and ordered me to be for you I warn you and warn you. I have informed you of the messages of my Lord and instructed you. If you accept from me what I brought you, it will be your happiness in this life and in the future. If you reject me, I will endure for the cause Allaah, until Allah decides between you and me. “
Later, God’s revelations of Muhammad were recorded in the Qur’an, the holy book of Muslims, that is, the confessors of the new doctrine – Islam.
Merchants of Mecca met his prophecies with hostility, as they feared that replacing polytheism with monotheism would be unprofitable for them. Muhammad even had to flee. In 622, he moved to the neighboring Yasrib oasis, where the ancestors of the present Arabs and the settler Jews favored his teaching about the one God. Yasrib was renamed Medina, and 622 was called “hijra” – “resettlement.” From the Hijra, the Muslims began to conduct
Islam borrowed the ideas of Christianity and Judaism, greatly simplified them, making it accessible to everyone. A simpler dogma than Islamic is hard to imagine. Muslims must believe that there is only one God, almighty Allah, that Muhammad is a messenger of God, a prophet that before the Prophet Muhammad was the biblical Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus Christ. Muslims are convinced that God is one for all, but Christians and Jews believe in it wrongly, therefore they are “infidels”. Muhammad allowed “faithful” to protect and spread Islam to declare “unfaithful” Jihad.
Ramadan became the greatest holiday among Muslims – a great post. They daily performed a five-time prayer, kneeling in front of Mecca. At least once in a lifetime, a Muslim was required to carry out the Pilgrimage in Mecca.
Turning the Arabs of Medina into Islam, Muhammad went to war against Mecca. Part of the Meccans took his side and demanded that the city surrender it without a fight. Frightened city top and did. Muhammad entered Mecca. He first of all cleared the Kaaba of idols, but he kept the Kaaba himself, proclaiming the Black Stone as the Messenger of Allah “true believer.” Since then, the Kaaba has become the main shrine for all Muslims.
Arabian cities and nomadic tribes one by one converted to Islam, which contributed to their unification into a single state – the Arab Caliphate. But in 632 Muhammad fell ill and died. He was buried in Medina, which immediately became a holy city of Muslims. With the death of Muhammad, the process of creating a state in Arabia stopped. A number of tribes have renounced the new faith. “The apostates” appeared on the Arabian Peninsula. There was a threat that the young Islamic state and Islam itself would perish. However, this did not happen.
The mosque is a Muslim temple.
Jihad – “holy war”, it could only declare the central authority.
The prophet is the messenger of God, the interpreter of his will, the prophet.
Pilgrimage is the walking to holy places.