Russian satire XVII century. has drawn into its sphere and from time immemorial, since the XII century. popular in our genre of “intelligent alphabet” – works in which individual phrases are arranged in alphabetical order. Until the XVI century. inclusive “sensible alphabets” consisted mainly of church-dogmatic, edifying or church-historical materials. Later they are replenished with everyday and accusatory material, in particular – illustrating the fatality of drinking. In many cases, such alphabets were adapted and specifically for the purposes of schooling.
“The ABC of a naked and poor person”, known in manuscripts also under the titles “The Legend of the Naked and the Poor”, “The History of the naked in alphabetical order”, etc. belongs to the number of purely satirical works. Neighborhood, in which manuscript collections contain the ABC of the Naked, are popular in the 17th century. satirical stories
– shows that she herself was treated as a work close to these stories, and not as an “explanatory alphabet” in the traditional sense. Basically, “The ABC of the Naked” contains a first-person story about the bitter share of the barefoot, hungry and cold man who lives in Moscow, exploited by the rich and generally “dashing people,” and the details of the text sometimes vary considerably in the lists. In general, the poor man is portrayed as the son of wealthy parents who always had “aladis and butter pancakes hot and good pies”. “My father and my mother left me a house and an estate,” he says of himself. In the oldest list of the XVII century. the ruin of the hero is explained as follows: “From envy of relatives, envy from rich, from neighbor hatred, from sale of sellers, from slanderous deceit, they want me with their legs.” He would have been my house, the rich were swallowed up, and relatives were looted. ” It happened because the boy after his father and mother “stayed young”, and “sporadic” his father’s property
was looted. In other, later lists, the misadventures of a young man are explained by the fact that he “drank and squandered everything”, or is not explained in any way, accompanied by a non-speaking remark: “But God forbid me to have it. “, or:” God forbid me to live for my poverty. ” “, etc. Even the pathetic attire of the young man went on to pay debts.” Ferezi had the kindest Rogozin, and the tie was wet, and even then people took the duty, “he complains. he could plow and sow. “My land is empty,” he says, “and everything grew in grass, it’s not good for me to weed and sow nechevo, and besides, there’s no bread.” The ABC is written in rhythmic prose, rhymed in some places :
People see that they live richly, but we, naked, do not give anything, the devil knows them, where they take care of dengas. I can not find peace for myself, bast shoes and sapagi always grow, but I do not make myself good.
There are also sayings in it, like: “What was it for him to promise, if he himself has nowhere to take”; “I would go on a visit, but not on anything, but nobody calls me”; “Sewed to the holiday odnorotku with korolki (corals), and the stomachs, I have a short”, etc. All of these features of the “ABC of the Naked, along with the typical etymology of its language, put it on a par with such works of satirical literature as the second half of the XVII century. as “Kalyazin petition”, “The Tale of the Sava Pop”, etc. (see below). The “ABC” and in its content and in terms of everyday details should be timed to the second half of the 17th century. and the emergence of it is associated with the environment of the environment, the internal relations of which it reflects. “