1. Identify the benefits of each mode of transport.
Aviation and electronic transport are the fastest; Marine and pipeline have the lowest cost. River transport has a fairly low cost, in addition, it does not need to build special routes, so it is very important in Siberia and the Far East, where the transport network is very poorly developed. Road transport is the most maneuverable, therefore it has the maximum passenger turnover. Rail transport provides about 10% of the turnover.
Railway transport, not standing out among other modes of transport, is distinguished by the best combination of the given and the table of parameters: high speed, reliability, rhythm, little depends on weather conditions. He is able to transport all types of cargo quickly with a relatively low cost.
In maritime transport, apart from low cost, it is important to emphasize one more thing – the vast extent of the sea borders. In Russia they are more than 44 thousand km, which is three times more than land. It accounts for more than 90% of the international cargo turnover. In addition, maritime transport has the largest single payload capacity and unlimited seaborne capacity.
2. What types of cargo are preferred for transportation?
Mass and bulky goods for long distances are profitable to transport by rail. Valuable, perishable and urgent – automobile and aviation.
3. How do you explain the used figurative expression that transport is the “circulatory system” of a country’s economy?
As blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to every cell of the body, and transport – along the way of communication delivers food, essential goods and other goods to various parts of the country. This is especially important with the modern large-scale division of labor. Now there are practically no areas that are in subsistence economy, therefore, the failures of the transport system are analogous to the interruptions in the supply of blood in the body.
In the management of the country, electronic transport has now taken the lead.
4. What new has brought to the development of vehicles of the XX century? What types of transport played a leading role in different periods of the country’s economic development?
In fact, in the XX century. the picture of transport has changed dramatically. Back in the XIX century. The main role played by horse, sea and river transport, railway only began to appear.
The first steam locomotive appeared in England in 1801, and the first railway line between Stockton and Darlington was built in the 1820s.
In Russia, the first locomotive was manufactured by EA and ME Cherepanov at the plant in Nizhny Tagil. The steam engine developed a speed of up to 15 km / h and worked at the mine as an export locomotive. In 1912 a steam locomotive of the “E” series with a capacity of 1,000 horsepower and a maximum speed of 50 km / h for freight traffic was built at the Lugansk plant. This steam locomotive for its time was the best in the world for economical fuel consumption and ease of maintenance.
Invented in the XIX century. types of communication received in the XX century. great development and new forms. Although the foundations of telegraph communication were laid in 1832-1844. the works of P. L. Schilling, B. S. Jacobi, S. Morse, this type of communication became widespread only in the middle of the 20th century. In addition, new types of it were invented-facsimile and electronic communications. In recent... years, amazing progress has been made in wireless communications. Invented in 1876 by the professor of speech physiology A. Bell, the phone now became necessary for every person and through satellite communication allows instantly connecting people in opposite ends of the planet.
At the beginning of the XX century. in Germany in the city of Wuppertal the first monorail was built with electric traction, which showed that its operation is cheaper than a tram by 20%.
Now in many countries there are short sections of monorail transport.
5. Using the “Transport of Russia” map, find out how the transport network of the western and eastern regions of the country, the northern regions of European Russia and the rest of its territory differ.
In general, the territory of Russia is dominated by the latitudinal direction of land transport and the meridional – river. For large cities of the European part of the country, a radial structure is characteristic. Between 50 and 60 ° with. w. The European part of the network of roads is so thick that it resembles a dense grid. In the north and east of the country are separate rays, and only in the southern part of Siberia are the sub-latitudinal Trans-Siberian and Baikal-Amur mainlines.
6. Using physical maps, compare the conditions of navigation in the seas of the Arctic and Pacific oceans.
On the physical map of Russia, pay attention to the white-blue dentate line – this is the winter boundary of the spread of floating ice. The water areas located to the north of this line are frozen in winter, and the farther to the north of this line, the longer the freeze-up period. The average duration of freeze-up is 7-8 months. From the Russian seas of the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, only the southwestern part of the Barents Sea is ice-free throughout the year. Ledostav is the main factor complicating navigation. However, in the Far East, maritime transport is extremely important, both for the transport of goods and passengers, both for international and coastal shipping. The share of cabotage traffic here reaches 85%.
7. Name the major seaports of the country and show them on the map. Which of them are of greatest importance for foreign economic relations?
Russia has 39 ports and 22 ports. The length of the berths is 60,5 thousand km. The ports of the Far Eastern basin – Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Vostochny – are in the first place in terms of cargo turnover. They supply the north-east of the country with industrial and food products, and also carry out foreign economic relations with the countries of Asia and Australia. The main cargo – coal, timber, oil, seafood, salt.
On the second place – the Baltic basin with the ports of Vyborg, St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad, which provides communication with the countries of Europe and America. This pool is characterized by a large volume of passenger traffic. In the turnover of goods, metals, technical goods, construction materials prevail.
The northern basin is of great importance for the development of the regions of the Far North. The largest port is the only ice-free ocean in Murmansk, through which apatite, non-ferrous and ferrous metal ores, fish, coal, building materials pass unfrozen. Arkhangelsk specializes in loading timber and timber.
Through the ports of the Black Sea-Azov basin, oil exports are mainly carried out.
The Caspian basin is used for domestic transportation of bread, timber, metals, salt, fish, cotton, building materials.