Processes Reconquista particularly intensified in the XII-XIII centuries. In the second half of the 12th century. Aragonese took over Zaragoza. In 1147, Lisbon was taken, which became the capital of Portugal. At the beginning of the XIII century. Castilians conquered the largest Moorish principalities – Cordoba and Seville. In the second half of the 13th century. In the hands of the Moors on the Iberian Peninsula, only Granada remained, which no longer posed a serious threat to the Christian states. The reconquista paused until the end of the 15th century. Reconquista contributed to the political organization of the Spanish states. In the course of the
In 1130 the Norman Duke Roger II, ruler of the south of Italy and Sicily, received from the pope the title of king. So there was a Sicilian kingdom. Formally, Roger II and his heirs were considered vassals of the pope, but in fact the Sicilian kingdom was a completely independent state. The Sicilian kingdom became a strong and centralized state of Italy under Friedrich II Staufen. He introduced a single administrative system in the kingdom, deprived feudal lords and the city of political independence, forbade the nobility to carry weapons and conduct internecine wars. Brother of the French King Charles of Anjou in the
Despite the overthrow of the Mongol yoke, the struggle lasted another 20 years. The unification of the country was completed only in 1387 after the subordination of Liaotung. With the coming to power Zhu Yuanzhang conducted a number of reforms. The possessions of the Mongols were confiscated. All the lands that were captured by the peasants during the war of liberation were legislatively assigned to them. However, there was not enough arable land. Peasants who agreed to cultivate wastelands were released for three years from taxes. By order of the emperor revived irrigation system. Slavery was abolished, and a population census was carried out and
1. What is the history of the central street of Kiev – Khreshchatyk? In Ukraine, probably, there is no person who would not know about this street. Khreshchatik belongs to the fame of the main street of Kiev, its symbol. Khreshchatyk is sung in verse and songs, is depicted in pictures, is shown in many films. A walk along Khreshchatyk is present in the mandatory program of tourists stay in Kiev. However, for this ancient city, which is Kiev, this street is quite young. From princely times until the beginning of the 19th century. Kiev consisted of three separate parts, each of which lived its
The perception of the world by a medieval man was significantly different from ours. The man did not feel himself to be a citizen of the universe, he lacked the nearest environment, and everything else seemed alien and hostile. He determined the time approximately, according to the sun or by the rooster’s singing, and did not appreciate it. Even historians have arranged such insignificant “dates” as “when the days are longer” or “when such a king rules.” At first, people treated themselves and others with disdain, because Christianity considered them sinful by nature. But gradually the thought matured that sins can be atoned for by
The supreme power in the Byzantine Empire belonged to the basileus, surrounded by honors and luxury. However, it was not easy to stay on the throne in Byzantium: most emperors lost power as a result of conspiracies and riots. If the conspirators won, they were not tried. During the 1122 years of the empire’s existence, 90 basilevs were replaced in it, that is, the average duration of government was 12-13 years. Sometimes the emperor summoned the senate, consisting of the highest secular and spiritual dignitaries. There were a thousand members of the synclite, but only the most important were gathered, who lived in the capital.
1. What determined the fate of Ukraine in the first decades after the creation of the USSR? In December 1919, Soviet Bolshevik power was established on most of the Ukrainian lands. Thus began the time of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. At the end of 1922 the USSR became a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – abbreviated USSR. In this state, Ukraine was before 1991. The new government proclaimed a course towards industrialization. The grandiose construction required the selfless labor of millions of people. In the hope of making a difference for the better in their lives, people worked for 10-12 hours,
In the XIII century. In medieval Europe there are heretical movements associated with the emergence and flowering of cities. It was in the cities that the number of educated people increased, able to read religious books and reflect on their content. They understood that the servants of the church did not in any way resemble Christ and his apostolic disciples who had neither power nor money. The highest flowering heretical movements reached in the second half of the 12th-13th centuries. Their center was South France, where the heretical teachings of the Cathars and the Valdensians were born. Qatar claimed that in the world there is
Although Charlemagne seems to have done everything to strengthen his state, it still proved to be unviable. He was weakened by rebellious feudal lords, whom the emperor had to force to submit to obedience. And most importantly, the tribes and peoples who inhabited the empire lived on their own and did not want to obey the French conquerors. In 814, 71-year-old Charlemagne, as the English say, “joined the majority” – died. Shortly before his death, he divided the empire between his sons, thereby signing her death sentence. Sons, who could not wait to get to power, buried his father on the day of his death.
At the turn of the VI-VII centuries. Byzantium quickly lost part of its possessions, both in the West and in the East. In the middle of the VII century. The Byzantine territory was halved compared to the time of Justinian. Now it increasingly took the form of a medieval state. Instead of the Roman title “emperor” began to use the Greek “basileus”. The official state language was Greek. The number of cities has decreased, in all spheres of the country’s life there has been a decline. A certain stabilization of the Byzantine state occurred under the first Basileans of the Isaurian dynasty. Its founder Leo