At the turn of the V-VI centuries. the positions of the papacy grew significantly as a result of the weakening of state power in Italy, as the country survived the conquest by the Ostrogoths, Byzantines, Lombards. In this situation, the popes were able to concentrate in their hands not only spiritual but also secular power. A special role in this belongs to the Pope of Rome, Gregory the Great. He came from a noble Roman family. His parents were good Christians. Having received a good education, Grigory occupied the highest administrative office in Rome – prefect. A year later he established a monastery of St.Read More →

Especially strengthened royal power in France under Philip IV the Beautiful. Favorably married, he took possession of the region of Champagne and the kingdom of Navarre beyond the Pyrenees, and then subdued to himself and the rich Flanders. However, the cities of Flanders soon rebelled and completely defeated in the so-called “Battle of Spurs” select French chivalry. Philip IV Beautiful was really handsome – stately, pale-faced, fair-haired. He did not tolerate rudeness, respectfully treated the ladies, he seemed humble and modest, almost quiet. But at the same time he could be resolute, strict, even cruel. I was able to hide my true disposition of theRead More →

The culture of the countries of the caliphate is predominantly called the Arab one. This is not entirely correct, because it also included the culture of the Syrians, the Egyptians, the Iranians, the peoples of Central Asia. However, the language of this culture was Arabic, and the unifying element was Islam. In addition, the Arabs used the culture and practical achievements of conquered peoples, which often were much higher in their economic and cultural development. Based on this heterogeneous and original alloy, the Arabs created a unique and rich culture. The greatest flourishing of Arab culture reached in the 8th and 12th centuries. At thatRead More →

The basis of the economic and political life of Scandinavia in the days of the Vikings were free people Bond. They had their own farm, they used the right to carry arms and appeal to the courts. They were farmers, cattlemen, hunters and fishermen. All of them were considered equal, but often their rights depended on the antiquity of the clan and the amount of land or livestock that they owned. The land could not be sold or bought. She inherited from her father to her eldest son. Other sons were forced to take care of themselves, which led to aggressive campaigns. The free populationRead More →

It’s quite easy to go to Finland: we boarded a trip to St. Petersburg, and in two hours you are already in the Suomi Country. Visiting the “northern neighbor” you, of course, hurry to visit the capital. But before you leave the train, look in the guide to Helsinki! Perhaps this can be done without delaying! We read. Helsinki is the capital of Finland. It is also known the Swedish name of the city – Helsingfors, which is connected with the use of the Swedish language in the country along with the Finnish as the second official language. The city is located on a rockyRead More →

In the 60-ies of IX century. Vikings, mostly Danes, began to conquer Britain. They captured a significant territory in the north-east of the country and forced the Anglo-Saxons south. The subsequent advancement of the Normans in this direction was suspended under King Alfred the Great. The king defeated the Danes and concluded a peace treaty with them, according to which Britain was divided into two parts. Alfred retained the south-western territory of the country centered in Wessex. And the Danes left the northeastern part of Britain, which was called Deno, that is, the “Region of Danish Law.” Despite the signed peace agreement, Alfred intensively preparedRead More →

756 – the foundation of the Papal States with the center in Rome. 1054 – schism – the division of the church into the Catholic and Orthodox. The Cluny movement and the reform activities of Pope Gregory VII: The election of Pan Roman by the conclave of the Cardinals; The introduction of the vow of celibacy for priests; Cancel the secular investment. Crusades – the aggressive campaigns of Europeans to the east in order to save the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Reason – the request of the Byzantine Emperor Alexis I Komnin to help in the fight against the enemies of the Christians of theRead More →

Russia, except the Mongols, threatened and other enemies: from the north, the Swedes and the Germans. Nineteen-year-old Alexander Yaroslavich, a Novgorod prince, in 1240 gamely repulsed the attack of the Swedes. The Swedish flotilla led by Jarl Birger entered the mouth of the Neva and was sent to Novgorod. Birger sent Alexander Yaroslavich a messenger with these words: “If you can, resist, but know that I’m already here and will conquer your land.” Alexander immediately came forward to meet the Swedes with his military squad and Novgorod militia and took the Swedish camp unawares. Birger did not expect an attack: the ships of the SwedesRead More →

In XIII – XV centuries. noble people in Russia lived for the most part in the mansion – two or three-story buildings, first wooden, and later – stone, with porches and teremami. They were surrounded by tall wooden fences with gates and wickets. In the center of the courtyard, apart from the choir itself, there were a few more houses for servants. Immediately there were built stables, stalls, rigs and baths. Very rich people built their own church. Near the yard there was a garden, a garden, flower beds. In the mansion there were living rooms, light-rooms – the rooms that were best illuminated –Read More →

Today we will have a fascinating excursion to a wonderful city: we will go to Rome. Rome – the capital of Italy – is located in the central part of the Apennine peninsula on the banks of the Tiber River, 27 kilometers from the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. One of the oldest cities in the world, Rome, according to legend, was founded in 753 BC. Its name, according to one version, comes from the name of the legendary founder of the city of Romulus, on the other – from the ancient name of the river Tiber – Rumont. For a number of centuries RomeRead More →

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