Where did the book come from?
While reading a book. you will fly around our country and the whole globe, visit distant planets, make a journey into the past and the future, learn to understand and love people, their work. Hold out your hand and the book will talk about what you need to know. Touch the fat root, and ask where the printed work came from, who invented it, how long, and with which were the first books? It’s hard to believe that books without paper are possible, but such were. What only people did not use for writing: clay, stone, wood, bark of trees, silk, skin. But the greatest distribution was acquired by clay, papyrus, parchment; in Russia – birch bark. Let’s turn to history: the people of the Stone Age also knew how to draw. Which material did they use for this?
The people of the Stone Age painted their drawings on the rock in the caves, depicting primarily animal hunting scenes. There were also books – giants. One such basalt book is in the State Historical Museum
And the ancient peoples of Assyria and Babylon wrote on clay tiles, the letters came out like wedges or triangles, so the writing was called cuneiform writing. There were such tiles in wooden boxes. In Egypt, on the marshy banks of the Nile, bulrushes grew, he was called papyrus.
In Russia, parchment was used in the middle of the fourteenth century, only later paper was delivered to Russia from Western Europe. Let’s remember which country was first made paper. The paper was first made in China, the peasants made paper pulp from bamboo and hemp from the 5th century AD. e. Already in the IX century AD. e. the Chinese printed books on machines, when people all over the world worked for years, creating a papyrus and parchment. Under pain of death, the secret of making paper has been preserved in China for many centuries.
Handwritten books were copied at monasteries, in rich houses. Several scribes worked on the book – enlightened and literate people. Ink, too, did the master. This was the recipe: “Fine to peel the ink nuts and sift them through a sieve, then pour with sour and unleavened honey and mix with cherry glue, put 12 iron plates in the solution and put the vessel in heat.” Stir three times a day, try and filter. ” The color of the ink came out very resistant, but not black, but with a brown tint, has not changed for centuries.
“The window into the vanished world” has become for us birch bark. Archaeologists have found the first letters in Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk.
For. to write words, we needed an alphabet. The first Slavic alphabet was Cyrillic. In 1553, on the orders of Ivan the Terrible, near the Kremlin, was built the first Printing House, the head of the State Printing House was the deacon of the church Ivan Fedorov, a gifted and educated man, popularly said “skilled craftsman, that in other lands can not be found.” He cut out the ornate letters on the long winter evenings, one more beautiful than the other, cut the boards for drawings, fonts from metal, and made the printing press. On March 1, 1564, Ivan Fedorov published the first book “The Apostle” – it was modeled after Russian annals with a beautiful letter and screensavers at the beginning of the section. From this day the domestic book publishing is taking count.
Against Fedorov came the clergy. Several years he worked in Lithuania, then moved with his family to Lviv. He creates his own printing press, where he prints Russian grammar and the first printed ABC book. He would continue to print Russian books, but poverty was a constant companion of the first printer. And in 1583 Ivan Fedorov died.