Postmodern is an era that replaces the era of modernity and unfolds “after the time of modernity.” Postmodernism is a philosophical reflection on the situation of postmodernism.
The term “modern” (modern) has been used since the 5th century. meaning a new Christian era, changing the old, the Roman, the pagan. However, in science it is considered to be the epoch of modernity that cultural situation, which was connected with the Age of Enlightenment. The main pathos of the Enlightenment was the perception of its own culture as a new, based on the mind and abandoned the grounds of the former medieval culture, cultivating a religious feeling. In other words, the culture of modern times is the culture of modernity. However, in the XIX century. this culture begins
However, it is necessary to realize that, unlike modernity, postmodernism does not demonstrate a declarative rejection of the principles of the previous era, but takes it as an equal and belonging to the past and forming next to it. That is why we can talk about the fundamental extra-historicity of postmodernism, which abandoned the logic of the epoch of the New Times, which gravitates toward the new and the newest. The main principle of postmodernism was the slogan “Everything is acceptable!”.
The transition to a “postmodern” culture is especially
1. In the exhaustion of the Enlightenment project, inspired by the belief in progress and the human mind, the illusory hopes for science and technology as an optimal tool for civilizational development.
2. In the new socio-economic situation associated with the processes of globalization and the aggravation of global problems.
3. In the coexistence in a single space of semantically incompatible and axiologically mutually exclusive cultural traditions, that is, the impossibility of a unified view of the world.
4. In the notion that the modern world is a total multiplicity – class, race, ethnic, cultural, which is embodied in the principle of “multiculturalism.” This eclecticism, the combination in specific cultural contexts of various national traditions leads to a situation where, as J.-F. Lyotard, on the radio listen to reggae, watch a western movie, go to McDonald’s for lunch, go to a restaurant with local cuisine for dinner, use Parisian perfume in Tokyo and dress in retro style in Hong Kong. Interest in a variety of previously unreviewed, marginal objects and phenomena – such as ethnic minorities, various subcultures, diverse types of sexual behavior and identity, pop music and television news, the semiotics of modern malls, comics about supermen, horror films, advertising, The urban utopia of Disneyland, the “Barbie phenomenon”, is characteristic of the interdisciplinary sphere of cultural research connected with the creation of the Birmingham Center for Cultural Research. In addition, a variety of “minorities” or those who identify themselves as such, received an academic platform to express their views (therefore sometimes “cultural studies” are called “discourse of minorities”). Often it is this direction that is associated with the growing popularity of the principle of “political correctness”. have received an academic platform to express their views (therefore sometimes “cultural studies” are called “discourse of minorities”). Often it is this direction that is associated with the growing popularity of the principle of “political correctness”. have received an academic platform to express their views (therefore sometimes “cultural studies” are called “discourse of minorities”). Often it is this direction that is associated with the growing popularity of the principle of “political correctness”.
5. In the degradation of culture, where hack-work, kitsch, the culture of television series and digests, advertising and motels, shows and Hollywood films, paralytic literature with its one-time chivalric novels and love stories, popular biographies, blood stories, science fiction, and aesthetic production are beginning to dominate. in commodity production.
6. In industrialization, modernization, urbanization, the increasing disintegration of local communities, the collapse of Western colonial empires and the development of new forms of imperialism and neocolonialism, the development of mass communications and the widespread dissemination of mass culture, the emergence of new forms of economically and ideologically motivated migration and the revival of nationalism, racial and religious oppression.
7. In the change of the subject of culture, which acquires fundamentally new features related to the socio-cultural circumstances in which it resides. These conditions are characterized by:
– an increase in the amount of information, isolation from which is practically impossible; the abundance of information inevitably leads to superficiality – first of perception, then, perhaps, of thinking;
– corresponding to the change in the quantitative parameters of information, the methods of its existence also change, where the polygraphic version of the text fixation is replaced by the digital one, and the logocentric book culture is screened; this most directly affects the features of thinking, where the consciousness appears as a clip-based, based on an emotional, but not an intellectual comprehension of the idea.