The conquest of the Ottoman Sultans in Europe and Asia

In the middle of the XIV century. Orhan’s troops captured Byzantium and moved on to active operations in the Balkans. Sultan Murad I captured Adrianople and transferred here the capital of his state. His success in the Balkans was facilitated by the unwillingness of local Christian rulers to unite their forces before the Ottoman threat and the flexible financial policy of the conquerors who collected less taxes and duties from the conquered population. Turkish Sultans also initially conducted a fairly tolerant religious policy regarding the Orthodox and Jewish population. Oppression was experienced only by Catholics.

Murad sent the first blow against Bulgaria. To avoid the Ottoman invasion, the Bulgarian king recognized himself as a vassal of the Sultan. After that, Murad I went to Serbia. Its ruler, Prince Lazar, at the head of the Serbian and Bosnian troops met the Sultan on Kosovo Kosol. In June 1389, there was a bloody battle that ended with the victory of the Ottomans

and decided the fate of the Balkan Peninsula for many centuries.

The country was tried by the Serbian military leader Miloš Obilic. He planned to kill the Sultan. Milosz came to the Turks and said that he had accepted Islam and was eager to join their invincible army. When the defector was allowed to kiss the sultan’s leg, the Serb snatched the poisoned dagger and mortally wounded Murad. The Janissaries immediately slaughtered Milos Obilic, and the sultan died in heavy agony. However, the Serbian army was destroyed. Prince Lazar, who was captured, was executed.

After Murad’s death, his son Bayazid I became the sultan, who was nicknamed “Lightning” for military dexterity. He continued the conquest and finally conquered Serbia and Bulgaria. Sultan Bayazid began to prepare for the conquest of Constantinople and in 1400 took the capital of Byzantium in siege. But to capture the city of Bayazid was prevented by the invasion of Asia Minor by the troops of the emir of Samarkand Timur.

The new conqueror Timur was born near Samarkand and was considered a descendant of Genghis Khan.

He limped on his right leg, could not read and write, but had a magnificent memory. It is known that he knew the detailed biographies of the outstanding commanders of the world and enthusiastically told his soldiers about their victories.

Timur quickly became a well-known leader of the military squad, conquered Samarkand and proclaimed himself emir. From this time he made aggressive campaigns in Central Asia, Siberia, Persia, Egypt, India, defeated the mighty Golden Horde. He was very cruel and often repeated: “The world is not worthy to have two rulers!”

However, the hometown of Samarkand Lame the Tiger loved and rebuilt, did not squander money. In the city erected majestic palaces, mausoleums, mosques and the like. It was at this time in Samarkand lived and created the famous people’s sage Khoja Nasreddin, with whom the all-powerful emir loved to conduct talks about the meaning of life.

In 1402, in a battle near Ankara, Timur defeated the Turkish army and seized Bayazid. The country, the formidable conqueror, has recovered and returned to Central Asia. The emir planted the sultan in a cage and drove after him like a predatory beast. Unable to withstand the humiliation, Bayazid poisoned himself.

Tamerlane’s interference undermined the power of the Ottomans and prolonged the existence of the Byzantine Empire for another half-century.

XV century. From the travel records of the Bavarian warrior Johann Schiltberger about the Battle of Ankara and the devastation of Turkey

Two troops met at Ankara and in the abyss of the battle thirty thousand Tatars, built by Bayazid in the first row of the fighting system, moved to Tamerlane. The battle was resumed twice, and continued until Tamerlane ordered the advance of thirty-two battle elephants and forced Bayazid to flee the battlefield. He hoped to find salvation beyond the mountains, where he was carried away with his retinue into a thousand horsemen; However, Tamerlane ordered to surround this area, forced Bayazid to surrender, and then seized his state, and stayed there for eight months. Taking his captive with him, he also took possession of his capital, from where he brought out his treasures and so much silver and gold that a thousand camels were needed for transportation. He wanted to bring Bayazid to his native land, but the Sultan died on the way.

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The conquest of the Ottoman Sultans in Europe and Asia