In the X-XIII centuries. in Europe, like mushrooms after the rain, cities grew – special, not similar to the Roman, or, even more so, modern. First they appeared in Italy, later – in Southern France, even later – in the north of France, in the Netherlands, England, Germany, the countries of Scandinavia, Ireland, Hungary, the Danubian principalities. Europe was built up unevenly by cities, most of them appeared in Italy, Flanders, Brabant and German lands along the Rhine.
The emergence of cities became possible when the peasants began to produce enough agricultural products to feed not only themselves, but also others. Since that time, a part of the population has already been able to choose a more profitable occupation, for example, a trade or trade. Enterprising
Residents of cities, townspeople, mostly craftsmen, merchants, people from the service sector. In the capital cities, where the royal court was located, the feudal lords lived with their servants and soldiers, royal and senorial employees, doctors, teachers, scientists. Where the bishops lived, the clergy were numerous.
Most of the medieval European cities were small, in each of them at best there were up to a thousand townspeople. Even in the XIV-XV centuries. great was the city with a population of 20-30 thousand inhabitants. Only a few cities – Constantinople, Paris, Milan, Venice, Florence, Cordoba, Seville – hit the medieval man with its populousness – for 50-100 thousand townspeople. Cities, millionaires, the Middle Ages, probably never imagined.