Summary of “How to write well”
The school curriculum provides for regular implementation of the presentation, this task is also an examination. At first glance, it may seem that outside the school walls, a person can already safely say goodbye to the writing skills: even at philological faculties, almost no attention has been paid to such tasks. But actually it is not. It is the writing of the presentations that develops the ability to highlight the main thing in the text, determine the key moments of any narrative, memorize well and express thoughts, convey the content of any material in the most compressed form.
For those who wrote well in the school of presentation, it will not be difficult to find the main ideas in the materials, briefly reflect them in the abstract and learn. Of course, when writing the presentation, it is better not to try to retell the entire text, namely, to reflect the main, central points. In the future life, these skills will also be needed: both at work, and when reading and analyzing
Basic methods and methods of text compression
To write a condensed presentation, the volume of which will be markedly reduced in comparison with the source text, you need to know all the basic methods of text compression. There are several types and methods of text compression.
Merging. Several proposals can be merged into one: to form a complex sentence, in which it will be a question of one subject. Syntactic methods of merging when compressing text:
- Omission of the logical links of the utterance, ligaments; the use of non-alliance; creation of incompleteness of offers; skipping predicate, subject.
An exception. It is necessary to exclude any parts of the text, without which you can convey the main content without distorting the meaning. There are a number of types of exceptions:
- The exclusion of a sentence containing facts secondary to the main theme of the text; reduction and elimination of homogeneous members of proposals; The exclusion of sentence members, which can be retrieved from reading from the general meaning of
Replacement. It is necessary to replace parts of the text and language categories with others, if this contributes to a reduction in the total volume. There are many effective methods of replacing:
- Reduction of a complex sentence to a simple one; the replacement of the compound sentence by a simple one; the replacement of the sentence, the part of the sentence with a determinative or negative pronoun bearing a generalizing meaning; replacement of the proposal, its part with the demonstrative pronoun; effectively replace the sentence fragment with a synonymous laconic expression; It is better to replace homogeneous terms by one common name.
All compression techniques should be used in a complex way, they can be oriented freely, then the shortening of the text will not take much time. The main thing is not to forget about its coherence and logic, not to allow sharp semantic shifts. When compressing, you should perform actions in a certain sequence:
- Exclude all small details, not so significant details; generalize all concrete and single phenomena; constantly monitor the harmonious combination of generalization and exclusion.
Also, you need to use meaningful methods of text compression:
- Minimize the initial information using the generalization method: first isolate single facts, and then select language tools and convey the meaning in a generalized manner; to divide all information into basic and secondary, completely exclude any information that can be dispensed with.
The use of all methods of shortening the text will help to compress the material as much as possible, concentrating the main content. Requirements for presenting various types of texts
Now various types of texts are offered for writing a condensed presentation. They are built on individual models, must be stated in accordance with their nuances. It is necessary to correctly define the style, the type of narrative, in order to know in which direction to write the exposition.
In the text-reasoning it is necessary to adhere to a clear logical structure: thesis, arguments, conclusion. That is, first you need to state the main idea, then bring the evidence, and finish the text with the author’s conclusion. It is important to establish cause-effect relationships and correctly formulate the conclusion. Sometimes in the text the output may not be contained, but the output indicated in the statement should correspond to the thesis and arguments. In the text-description it is necessary to reflect all the brightest signs of the subject, to give him an estimate. The details need to be remembered when reading and to make into the plan, and in drafting the draft version, it’s logical to extend them with attribute supplements and estimates. At the beginning of the presentation you will need to name the described object. In the text-narrative it is necessary to pay the main attention to the given sequence of events,
Compliance with these principles will help to write the presentation in the right style. Algorithm and the main principles of writing the presentation.
When writing the statement it is important to follow the basic principles and act on a certain algorithm. Then it will be easier to create a truly complete, logical and adequate text.
During the first reading of the text, one should immediately pay attention to its linguistic features and structure. We must try to isolate artistic means. Do not try to write down the text in detail. It is better to briefly outline, highlighting 3-4 words from the paragraph. The number of paragraphs must be counted, numbering each of them. In the break, you need to define the topic and describe it in detail in the draft. It is also worth writing a type of speech, style. Then you need to write down the basic idea, find out which words are repeated most often. The main goal of the second listening is the concretization of the initial impressions. It is necessary to write down key words and phrases, to try to trace the development of each microteam. It is advisable to leave gaps in the text, so that when editing fill them with additional information. At this stage, you need to write a draft.
- Microtem connection; correlating the meaning of parts with the main idea.
Then you need to make all the additions and fixes, check the text for errors.
· Only after a complete check of the draft, when it already has no errors, you can start writing a clean version. It should be written carefully, without distraction and without missing fragments of the text. Checking the cleanup, it is necessary not only to look for errors, but also to correlate it with the draft – so that the entire text has been transferred verbatim.
To correctly write a statement, you need to master the basic methods of text compression, be able to distinguish texts of different types, find the main idea and topic. It is important to remember the necessary skills and requirements for presentation, to accurately calculate the time, not to rush and not to worry. At the final stage, you need to carefully read the statement and check it for errors.