In the Middle Ages in India favorable conditions were created for the development of education and science, in particular mathematics, astronomy, medicine. Indian mathematicians used the original decimal system of accounts, which with the Arabs subsequently fell into Europe. Hence the name – the Arabic numbers of the High level reached astronomy. Scientists have learned to more accurately determine the location of planets, measure time, etc. Some Indian astronomers have been known far beyond the borders of the country. Huge knowledge was accumulated in medicine. In the treatment of diseases, water procedures, medicinal herbs, adhered to a healthy diet. At the same time, a directory of medicinal plants was compiled.
In the Buddhist monasteries, ancient manuscripts were studied and new ones were created. Support for Buddhism from all over Asia converged here. So the monasteries turned into original universities. The most popular among such schools was Nalanda. A lot of Asian
rulers allocated funds for its development. Therefore, the training here was free. Pupils and teachers received everything necessary for living, including housing, medical care, etc. The pride of Nalanda was a unique library in which many copyists worked. It can be argued that this was a real enlightenment center of the world Buddhist community. Unfortunately, Nalanda has not survived until our days – the famous school was mercilessly destroyed by Muslims back in the late 12th century.
VII century. Chinese traveler Xuan Zang of the University of Naland
Priests, of whom there are several thousand, are people of exceptional abilities and talents. At the moment, their popularity is very high… They strictly adhere to the prescriptions of the moral law.
… From morning till night they are occupied with reflections. The old and the young mutually help each other. Those who can not understand the Tripitaka are not respected much, they are embarrassed and forced to hide. As a result of this, many scientists from different cities who were eager to quickly learn to skilfully conduct discussions,
come to Nalanda to sort out their doubts, after which the flow of their wisdom spreads to all. For this reason, some people assume the title of a Nalan scholar, thanks to which we respect wherever we appear.
Indian literature has also gained recognition. Epic, lyrical and dramatic works were written in Sanskrit by literary-processed Old Indian language. However, for the majority of the population, it was incomprehensible. In the Gupta era, a talented poet and playwright Kalidas lived and worked. In the center of his works is a man, his world view, troubles and joys on the path of life. The world famous Kalidasa play “Shakuntala” has been translated into many languages of the world. Romantic and sublime depicts the sincere love of the raja and the simple girl.
Gradually, Sanskrit literature acquired an emphatically refined, courtly character. Literary works began to be written in popular languages. This was mainly epic poetry, which exalted the courageous struggle of Rajputs with Muslims. A separate group consisted of works of a religious and mythological direction, based on the subjects of Hinduism. Since the X century. Sanskrit becomes basically the language of science.
A special role in India was assigned to the theater. It was of two types. The nobility had his own court theater. Another, the people’s theater of masks and dolls, worked in the open air. The actors gave performances with music and Ghanaian people. Every movement had a definite meaning. To seize the secrets of this art, it took years sometimes.
Even during the Gupt years, architecture and sculpture reached a significant heyday. Especially surprising cave temples. The most famous among them is the cave Buddhist temple in Ajanta. This is a complex of 29 caves carved into the rock. It organically intertwined art of architecture, sculpture and painting. It’s amazing that the colors in the cave semi-darkness somehow emit light. Their composition is not solved now. Among the main subjects – scenes from the life of the Buddha, illustrations for sacred texts, as well as a variety of decorative drawings of animals and plants. The gallery of female portraits belongs to the masterpieces of the ajanta caves. Even more majestic is the architectural complex in Elura, which was built in the V-VIII centuries. It has 34 rooms and galleries.
The planting of Islam changed the development of Indian culture. Most of all, this affected sculpture and painting, because Muslims were forbidden to depict people and animals. Instead, a floral ornament, a mosaic, spread, and the monumental architecture has reached real heights. There were huge arches, domes, arches. Among them was built in the XIII century. The unique minaret of Qutb Minar in Delhi. This is the highest tower in the world in the Middle Ages.
Masterpieces of Indian culture are part of the world cultural heritage of mankind.
Rajputs are the military-aristocratic elite of Indian society, which engaged exclusively in military affairs, competing in this with the kshatriya