An important role in strengthening the Catholic ecclesiastical organization belonged to monasticism. You remember that the father of Western monasticism in the VI century. became Benedict of Nursia. Over time, many monasteries were founded, guided by the statute of St. Benedict of Nursia. The charter included three vows: permanent residence in the monastery, obedience and restraint. In order to unite the monasteries, in 530 the Order of the Benedictines arose.
At the end of the XI century. emerged the Order of the Cistercians. It was founded in 1098 by the abbot Robert in the Burgundian town of Sitho, which in Latin is read as “Cistercium.” Hence the origin of the word “Cistercians”. The purpose of creating the Cistercian Order is to return to the strict rules of the monastic life of Benedict Nursia. The Cistercians provided themselves with their own labor and ate only plant food. The Cistercian Order owes much to the abbot Bernard of Clairvaux. Thanks
to his activity, a small order became one of the largest.
At the beginning of the XIII century. a new type of monasticism arose-mendicant orders, the classic example of which are the Franciscan and Dominican orders.
The founder of the Order of the Franciscans was Francis of Assisi. He was born in the city of Assisi in a rich merchant family. At first the young man engaged in trade, but after captivity and a serious illness he devoted himself to religion. Granting the property to the poor, Francis of Assisi preached to the destitute and sick. He taught not only to love people, but also animals, trees, flowers, sunlight, fire and water, seeing in everything the incarnation of God. Gradually, around him gathered followers, who called themselves minors, that is, “smaller brothers.” With the support of the papacy, the Minorites eventually formed the Order of the Franciscans. His rules included the observance of the ideals of poverty, asceticism, humility and obedience.
The Dominican order arose in 1216. Its founder was the Spanish monk Dominique de Guzmán, later numbered saints. However, the
name of the order comes from the Latin phrase “domini canes” – dogs of the Lord. The emblem of the Dominican order was a dog with a torch in his teeth. The order was headed by the master-master, and the monks dressed in black raincoats with a hood. Dominicans paid special attention to educational activities, and also actively studied the Holy Letter. They became a reliable support for the popes in the fight against their political opponents.
Asceticism is a religious teaching, the meaning of which is the preaching of renunciation of the joys of life, of asceticism and the taming of earthly desires for achieving moral perfection.