In the disclosure of all the processes and vicissitudes taking place in the soul of Julien Sorel, with special expressiveness was the psychology of Stendhal, who achieved unusual subtlety and insight. And it is psychology that is the fundamental feature of the poetics of the novel “Red and Black”.
Novel Stendhal’s “Red and Black” is one of the most striking and characteristic works of objective psychology. In his artistic structure, two levels are distinguished: the deployment of an action, the story of the hero’s intentions and actions, the relationship with other characters, his collisions and conflicts, and in parallel, the author’s voice that analyzes and explains everything that happens to the hero reveals the causes and motivation of his actions. So, Matilda’s letter to her father, in which she reports on the wedding with Julien, makes the Marquis de la Mole finally take a decision. And then the author immediately comes into
his own right: “In these exceptional circumstances, all the significant features of his character, forged by the great upheavals that he experienced in his youth, powerfully made him a dreamer, powerfully gave voice… But the same imagination,
The following is a detailed internal monologue of the Marquise de la Mole, containing a subtle, comprehensive analysis of Julien’s character: “No, he does not have the flexibility and cunning of any sod, will not miss a convenient moment or a favorable opportunity. And on the other hand – I see that it is not guided by high rules at all. This is something incomprehensible to me… Some seminarian shallow soul feels unsatisfied only because there is no money and good things to live in. It has something completely different: it will not allow for anything to happen he was despised. “
In his novel, Stendhal often resorts to an internal monologue in the form borrowed from classical dramaturgy. Hence inherent works of drama adequately expressed in the internal monologues and dialogues of the hero, often with imaginary opponents.
novel “Red and Black” can not be called Displaced or weakened by plot, on the contrary, there is a tense and dynamic plot with dramatic collisions and events, sharp turns of action, finally, with the final catastrophe. However, an acute and exciting plot is not an end in itself for Stendhal. He obeys the task of revealing the inner world and the fate of the protagonist, connected with external factors, with the specifics of the socio-historical moment, which also lends itself to analysis.
Another distinguishing feature of the novel is the dynamism of the narrative. It follows from the character of an active and ambitious protagonist, who entered into a duel with the era and society. Julien thinks and analyzes a lot, but this does not hinder the development of the action. His reflections and analyzes are introduced by the author into a stream of external and internal action, the expression of which they appear, and therefore do not fall out of the general rhythm of the narrative. In “Red and Black,” Stendhal consistently adhered to the motto “Roman is created by action” and avoided detailed descriptions and detailed static characteristics incompatible with this setting. This peculiarity of style is also manifested at the linguistic level of the work, in that the frequency of verbs, that is, of words conveying the action, is almost equal to the frequency of nouns. And this is rarely seen in romance. A characteristic feature of the syntax of “Red and Black” is that the author here prefers a short “vigorous” sentence, saturated with tension and movement.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the novel “Red and Black” was not received by contemporaries of Stendhal and led to misunderstandings with the author. Only a small circle of readers in France and abroad, among whom were Balzac and Goethe, could understand and appreciate this work. However, at the end of the XIX century. interest in the novel began to grow, and in the XX century. “Red and Black” was rightly recognized as one of the best novels in French and world literature.