Estate monarchy

In the XII century. the royal power appreciably strengthened. There were several reasons for such changes. The need for a strong royal power was felt by the petty and average feudal lords, who sought protection from power seniors. In addition, the feudal lords sought to increase profits. However, direct pressure on the peasants could lead to insurrection. Therefore, it was the strong state that was to guarantee the security of landowners. Strengthened the royal authority and the city. However, their trade and economic activities were hindered by customs posts on the borders of numerous feudal estates, the absence of a single monetary unit, and so on. At the same time, the cities and kings were reliable allies in the struggle against the major seniors. For the support of the townspeople generously provided the treasury of the king with money. The unification of the urban population around the throne also accelerated the threat of external wars.

At the same time, with the strengthening

of royal power, the process of creating new forms of state power was underway. The king formed a royal council, which, in particular, includes the chancellor, treasurer, marshal. At the same time, an ever-improving clear judicial system is being created, royal taxes have also been ordered, and the number of officials in the field has increased.

The estates are becoming more active in defending their own interests, which leads to a qualitatively new relationship between the king and his subjects. In the XIII-XV centuries. there are bodies of class representation. Membership in them belonged to representatives of the nobility, the clergy and the townspeople. In each country they had different names: the Cortes in Spain, the Parliament in England, the General States in France, the Reichstag and Landtagy in Germany, the Sejm in Poland, the Czech Republic and Lithuania, the National Assembly in Hungary, etc. As a result, in medieval Europe, monarchy is a form of the feudal state, where the power belongs to the king and estate representation.

Known cases where the actions of the bodies of estate representation were aimed at limiting the royal power. However, usually their interests coincided. Thus the principle was asserted: as for everyone, it must be approved by all. The policy of kings was now supported by representatives of the leading social classes. Taxation, carried out by mutual consent, opened up new financial opportunities for the kingdom. Consequently, for its time the estate monarchy was a sufficiently effective system of government.

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Estate monarchy